Previous Up Next

16  GROUP V—The built-in OpenGL Graphical Visualizer

V.01


Object

This Section describes the built-in OpenGL-based graphical visualizer. Note that at the moment this tool is only available in the MS-Windows version of EPX. Under Linux, an implementation of the visualizer may or may not be available depending on the version, but in any case the functionality is somewhat restricted with respect to the MS-Windoes version. For example, the direct production of animations in the form of AVI files is not available under Linux because some of the necessary graphical libraries are not available.

The graphical visualizer can be used in two modes:

It should always be kept in mind that the scope of the built-in graphical visualizer is not to rival the full-fledged powerful post-processors that can be used with EPX. For industrial use the ParaView software (or the Salome platform) are the obvious choice. However, during the development of the EPX code it may be handy to have access to a rapidly-programmable built-in visualizer that can be readily customized in order to obtain the exact desired graphical representation of some new features or model being developed, so as to help in the development and testing/debugging processes. Also, occasional users or students dealing with small academic examples may find it useful to exploit the embedded graphical visualizer, since it avoids the need of installing any additional software besides EPX itself.

An introduction to (an early version of) the graphical visualizer is given in reference [208]. A list of all menus and commands is also provided below with short explanations of each functionality.

16.1  Preparing to use the built-in graphical visualizer

V.10

In order to have access to interactive graphics capabilities, EPX must (at least formally) be run in “interactive’ mode. This is accomplished by inserting in the input file (which has an extension .EPX) the following directive:

  CONV WIN

where the keyword CONV stays for “conversationnel” (the French word for interactive) and the following one designates the type of graphical platform.

Historically, various platforms have been supported such as TEKT (Tektronix-like or PLOT-10 terminal) and WIN (MS-Windows graphics, originally implemented via QuickWin). For the purpose of the current discussion on 3D rendering, the choice is rather irrelevant since the OpenGL-based module operates separately and independently from the previous old-fashioned graphical routines, so users may want to just use WIN as shown above. The above directive must be inserted immediately after the problem title in the input file, i.e. before the “problem dimensioning” section of the file. For full details, see page A.25.

16.2  Interactive code execution

V.20

When interactive execution is chosen, EPX reads the input data-set as usual, performs step 0 to initialise the computation, then prompts the user for commands from the keyboard with the phrase:

  COMMANDE ?

The user can then issue various commands and subcommands from the keyboard in order to pilot the computation. For example, he can ask the program to perform a certain number of steps, then to halt again for further commands. Each time the calculation is halted, the current mesh can be visualized and information concerning the computation (time step, CPU time, etc.) can be printed. To activate the 3D rendering, just type the command:

  trac rend

(note that both input directives and interactive commands are case-insensitive in EPX). This should open a graphical OpenGL window visualizing the mesh in the current configuration. The default initial position of the “observer” is along the positive z-axis, and it looks towards the geometric centre of the model.

As long as the graphical window stays open, all input is “grabbed” by it. In particular, text typed at the keyboard is interpreted as graphic commands and does not go to the “normal” EPX console window as usual. To return control to the main EPX application, and to continue the calculation, close the graphical window by clicking on the “cross” in the top right corner of the border (or by using the pop-up Menu, see below). In the current implementation, just one graphical wi may be open at any given time.

The initial size of the graphical window is 500 by 500 pixels. The window may be resized, and the shown object will resize accordingly.

By default, the viewing model is such that the observer always points its view towards the geometrical centre of the object. This is called the “rotating camera” model. Upon motion, the user may imagine that either the observer rotates around the model, or that the observer is fixed and the model is rotated, whatever seems most natural to him/her.

Rotation and other changes in the view parameters may be obtained in two ways: with keyboard command or by means of menu commands. We first list all the available keyboard commands, then we describe the menus.

16.3  Keyboard commands

V.30

The complete list of available keyboard command (at the moment of writing) is given in the following Table (see also Section O.15).


KeyActionAmountCTRL-CTRL/SHIFT-SHIFT-
0 (zero)Reset default view
Up arrowRotate camera “up”511030
Down arrowRotate camera “down”511030
Left arrowRotate camera “left”511030
Right arrowRotate camera “right”511030
PgUpRotate camera anticlockwise511030
InsRotate camera clockwise511030
bTranslate camera backwardsR/2R/10R3R
fTranslate camera forwardsR/2R/10R3R
iZoom camera in (without moving)× 1.2× 1.1× 1.5× 2.0
oZoom camera out (without moving)× 1.2× 1.1× 1.5× 2.0
rMove camera rightwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
lMove camera leftwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
uMove camera upwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
dMove camera downwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
Table 7: Available keystrokes.

The keystrokes are not case sensitive: for example, b has the same effect as B. Some keystrokes (r, l, u and d) have effect only when the camera is set in “free navigation” mode (not in “rotating” mode). In order to change the camera navigation mode interactively, press the right mouse button in order to bring up the interactive menu and then use the Geometry → Navigation sub-menu.

The description of motions refers to the “camera” model, i.e. to the ideal observer. If preferred, the user may think of the same motion as applied to the object that is being viewed, by just inverting the “sign” of the motion. For example, the “Left arrow” key rotates the observer to the left or, alternatively, the object to the right.

Each motion has pre-defined amounts: 5 degrees for rotations, 1/2 of the object radius for translations, 20% magnification/reduction for zooming. Smaller amounts may in some cases be obtained by pressing the Control key (CTRL), larger ones by the Control-Shift keys (CTRL-SHIFT), and even larger amounts by the Shift key (SHIFT) in conjunction with any of the above described keys. For example, the keys combination CTRL-PgUp turns the camera by 1 degree, CTRL/SHIFT-PgUp turns it by 10 degrees and SHIFT-PgUp turns it by 30 degrees.

16.4  Mouse-driven motions

V.40

A simple and intuitive way of moving the model (or the observer) which is alternative to the keyboard commands described above is by means of the mouse (see also Section O.15).

With the navigation mode set in “rotating” camera mode, by pressing the left mouse button while the pointer is inside the graphical window, a sort of “virtual trackball” is activated. The object “follows” any subsequent motions of the mouse by rotating around its centerpoint in the corresponding direction.

The effects that may be obtained with the left mouse button are summarized below.


ActionEffect
Press left buttonThe object starts “following” the mouse cursor by rotating around its centerpoint
Release button while not movingThe object stops rotating, in the final position reached during the previous motion
Move button while pressedThe object follows the mouse motion
Release button while movingThe object continues to “spin” around its centerpoint along the last rotation axis that was active immediately before releasing the button (sort of continuous animation)
Release button while not movingThe object stops rotating, in the final position reached during the previous motion
Table 8: Available mouse events.

Some experimentation will make readily clear what the above somewhat complicated verbal descriptions mean.

A situation which may arise with inexperienced users is that, after using the mouse to rotate the body, it does not stop but it continues “forever” its rotation. This happens when the mouse button is released while still moving (though slowly) the mouse. To stop a rotating object, the following technique may be used: just give a single, quick “click” of the mouse in the window (i.e. press and then immediately release the button) by making sure that you do not move the mouse meanwhile.

16.5  The Main menu

V.50

The bulk of the user interface of the built-in graphics module is represented by a pop-up menu system that is activated by pressing the right mouse button while the pointer is inside the graphical window.

This stems from one of the fundamental choices that have been done during the design of the module, i.e. that of ensuring as wide as possible portability over different platforms. To achieve portability, use is made of the standard package GLUT (OpenGL Utility Toolkit). The only GUI features offered by this package is a hierarchy of pop-up menus. Other features that are common in many graphical environments such as a menu bar, buttons, labels, dials etc. are not supported. Although this is a serious limitation, it is believed that a quite usable interface has been realized, thanks to a careful choice of the arrangement of commands in the menus.

Each menu entry may represent either a command, or the “root” of a lower-level (or sub-) menu. In the latter case, a right-pointing arrow appears after the menu label.


Syntax:

  Objects     --> ...
  Geometry    --> ...
  Vectors     --> ...
  Isovalues   --> ...
  Text        --> ...
  Colors      --> ...
  Lights/Mats --> ...
  Win/Copy    --> ...
  Quit

In the following, menus and sub-menus are highlighted in bold for clarity, e.g. Objects, while commands are emphasized, e.g. Quit. The entries of the main menu are:

The contents and functionality of each sub-menu is shortly described and illustrated in the following Sections.

16.6  The Objects menu

V.60


Object:

This menu allows to choose the objects to be visualized. Basically, objects are named lists of nodes and elements. They are optionally defined in the data structure that interfaces the OpenGL visualization module with the EPX program proper. If no objects are specified in the data interface, then the whole mesh is visualized and the user cannot select or unselect parts of the mesh. If some objects are specified, then the whole mesh is still visualized by default, but the user may choose to select or unselect some of these objects. The available sub-menus are:


Syntax:

  Objects --> Show all
              Hide all
              Select meshes   --> <list of mesh objects>
              Unselect meshes --> <list of mesh objects>
              Select groups   --> <list of group objects>
              Unselect groups --> <list of group objects>
              Select points   --> <list of points objects>
              Unselect points --> <list of points objects>
              Draw hidden as  --> Hidden
                                  Outlines
                                  Colored glass
                                  Blue glass
                                  Green glass
                                  Glass
                                  Fading

Note that individual objects may not be de-selected once they have been selected. This is due to the fact that objects are not necessarily disjoint. To deselect an object among a group of selected objects, first deselect all objects (Hide all) and then select the other members of the group.

16.6.1  The Draw hidden as menu


Syntax:

  Objects --> Draw hidden as  --> Hidden
                                  Outlines
                                  Colored glass
                                  Blue glass
                                  Green glass
                                  Glass
                                  Fading

This sub-menu allows to specify how the hidden objects (of mesh type), i.e. those not currently selected, are to be drawn.

To draw just the edges (sharp corners, free edges, perpendicular contours) of the hidden parts of the mesh use the corresponding switches in the GeometryLines menu, described in Section V.70.

16.7  The Geometry menu

V.70


Object:

The Geometry menu allows to choose the way in which the geometrical appearance of the model is represented. By default, the body is rendered as a solid (opaque) surface composed by elements (subdivided into facets) with the border (outline) of each element highlighted.

Note incidentally that each command of the type Show xxx is of the toggle type. By activating the command, the menu entry changes into Hide xxx (the next time the menu is shown), and reciprocally. The available sub-menus are described hereafter.


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Navigation           --> ...
               Near Plane Tolerance --> ...
               Projection           --> ...
               References           --> ...
               Faces                --> ...
               Lines                --> ...
               Points               --> ...
               Shrinkage            --> ...
               Pinballs             --> ...
               Initial geometry     --> ...
               Flying debris        --> ...
               FLSR domains         --> ...
               FLSW domains         --> ...
               Gpinballs            --> ...
               Links (coupled)      --> ...

The various sub-menus are described next.

16.7.1  The Navigation menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Navigation --> Rotating camera
                              Free camera
                              Write camera
                              Update cameras list
                              Select camera       --> <list of camera files>
                              Focus on            --> ...

This sub-menu allows to specify details of the navigation model.


The Focus on menu

Syntax:

  Geometry --> Navigation --> Focus on --> All
                                           Meshes --> <list of mesh objects>
                                           Groups --> <list of group objects>
                                           Points --> <list of points objects>

This sub-menu allows to specify the part of the geometrical model on which focus should be set. It can be useful in case the User wants to concentrate attention on small details of the mesh which would be difficult to localize in the default view of the model, which is focused on the (whole) model’s centroid.

16.7.2  The Near plane tolerance menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Near plane tolerance --> 1.E-2
                                        1.E-3
                                        1.E-4
                                        1.E-5

This sub-menu allows to choose the tolerance for the near clipping plane among one of the values proposed. Changing the value may sometimes help in ameliorating some views.

16.7.3  The Projection menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Projection --> Perspective
                              Orthogonal

This sub-menu allows to choose the type of geometrical projection used in the rendering process.

16.7.4  The References menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> References --> Show reference frame
                              Show bounding box
                              Show center

The References menu may be used to visualize some geometrical elements that help understanding the positioning of the object in space.

16.7.5  The Faces menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Faces --> Hide front faces
                         Show back faces
                         Show internal faces
                         Hide back iso surfaces

The Faces menu allows to choose the way in which the element faces are rendered.

16.7.6  The Lines menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Lines --> Hide element outlines
                         Show sharp corners
                         Show free edges
                         Show perp contours
                         Show iso surface outlines
                         Antialias lines
                         Show backface outlines
                         Show internal outlines

The Lines menu allows to choose the way in which various types of lines are rendered.

16.7.7  The Points menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Points --> Dots 1
                          Dots 2
                          Dots 4
                          Dots 8
                          Spheres 1
                          Spheres 2
                          Spheres 4
                          Spheres 8
                          Spheres physical

The Points menu allows to choose the way in which various types of points are rendered. These include material points but also SPH particles, for example. Two basic representations are possible: by means of dots or by means of spheres. A dot is just a square block of color while a sphere is a full-fledged sphere rendered as a mesh of facets, with their own outlines (if element outlines are activated in the scene). Dot sizes vary from 1 to 8 in pixel units. Sphere sizes also vary from 1 to 8, but in an arbitrary unit which corresponds to 1/128 of the model size. By default, points are rendered as dots of size 4. There is also the possibility to represent spheres by their “physical” size: in this case the radius of the sphere corresponds to the physical value it has in the model. For example, in the case of SPH particles, this is the value assigned in the CBIL RAYO directive.

16.7.8  The Shrinkage menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Shrinkage --> No shrinkage
                             Shrink by groups
                             Shrink 99%
                             Shrink 80%
                             Shrink 60%
                             Shrink 40%
                             Shrink outlines
                             Shrink isolines
                             Shrink hidden faces
                             Shrink pinballs

The Shrinkage menu allows to apply some “shrinkage” to each element rendered. The element is “shrunken” by the chosen amount with respect to its centroid. This produces an effect like if the mesh had “exploded” and allows to distinguish the various elements forming the mesh. This may be useful to see the “internals” of the mesh or to distinguish between superposed elements (e.g. a flat shell structure attached to a continuum fluid element). A toggle button Shrink outlines allows to shrink the element’s outline like the element face, or not. Another toggle button Shrink isolines does the same for isolines. Finally, a toggle button Shrink hidden faces shrinks the faces of hidden objects (in case they are shown as translucent).

16.7.9  The Pinballs menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Pinballs --> Show parents
                            Show nodal ASNs
                            Show parent ASNs
                            Show contacting descendents
                            Show contact points
                            Show contact normals
                            Show contact joints
                            Show descendent ASNs

The Pinballs menu allows to visualize pinballs used in EPX to model contact between bodies. This menu appears only when pinballs are present in the current calculation. Pinballs are visually represented by semi-transparent spheres, and contacts can be highlighted in the form of red lines joining the centres of each pair of contacting pinballs. In addition, various types of normals can be visualized.

16.7.10  The Initial geometry menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Initial geometry --> No initial geometry
                                    As current geometry
                                    Colored glass
                                    Wireframe
                                    Outline

The Initial geometry menu allows to visualize the initial (undeformed) configuration of the computational model in a variety of ways, in addition to the current (deformed) configuration. This menu appears only if the user has specified the DEFO optional keyword in the TRAC directive. An additional AMPD ampd keyword allows to choose an optional magnification factor ampd of the displacements (by default, ampd is 1.0).

16.7.11  The Flying debris menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Flying debris --> No trajectories
                                 Trajectories
                                 Colored trajectories

The Flying debris menu allows to visualize the trajectories of flying debris particles. The flying debris particles themselves are drawn as material points, with the corresponding options and settings (see the Points menu described above). The Flying debris menu appears only if there are flying debris (see DEBR) in the model and if the user has chosen to save the trajectories (which can lead to huge output).

16.7.12  The FLSR domains menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> FLSR domains --> Show all domains
                                Show spheres
                                Show cones
                                Show prisms
                                Show hexahedra
                                Show normals
                                Show couplings
                                Show blocked fluxes

The FLSR domains menu allows to visualize the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) domains used by the FLSR model (see FLSR) in order to detect the interacting entities. In addition, one may visualize the normal directions used for the interaction relationships, the couplings and the blocked numerical fluxes.

16.7.13  The FLSW domains menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> FLSW domains --> Show all domains
                                Show spheres
                                Show cones
                                Show prisms
                                Show hexahedra
                                Show normals
                                Show couplings
                                Show blocked fluxes

The FLSW domains menu allows to visualize the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) domains used by the FLSW model (see FLSW) in order to detect the interacting entities. In addition, one may visualize the normal directions used for the interaction relationships, the couplings and the blocked numerical fluxes. This menu is similar to the FLSR domains menu but it applies to Cell-Centred Finite Volume (VFCC) discretizations rather than to Finite-Element (FE) discretizations of the fluid sub-domain.

16.7.14  The Gpinballs menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Pinballs --> Show all domains
                            Show spheres
                            Show cones
                            Show prisms
                            Show hexahedra
                            Show parent ASNs
                            Show penetrations
                            Show penetration rates
                            Show contact points
                            Show contact normals
                            Show contact joints

Caution: The GPIN model is still under development, so some of these features may have limited functionality.

The Gpinballs menu allows to visualize the generalized pinballs (GPINs) used in EPX to model contact between bodies. This menu appears only when generalized pinballs (see GPIN) are present in the current calculation. Gpinballs are visually represented by semi-transparent spheres, cones, prisms and hexahedra. The penetrations and penetration rates are optionally visualized. Contacts can be highlighted in the form of red lines joining the contact points of each pair of contacting gpinballs. In addition, the contact normals and the contact points can be visualized.

16.7.15  The Links (coupled) menu


Syntax:

  Geometry --> Links (coupled) --> Show all links
                                   Length         --> ...
                                   Show link joints
                                   Show           --> <list of links by type>
                                   Hide           --> <list of links by type>

The Links (coupled) menu allows to visualize the coupled links present in the current model. This menu is only available if there are coupled links (see LINK COUP) and if the user has activated the OPTI LNKS VISU option in the input data file. A link is represented by a set of arrows, attached to each of the nodes that are connected by the link itself. The length of the arrows is arbitrary (by default, 1/10 of the model diameter) and can be adjusted by the Length sub-menu. The direction of the arrow is the direction along which the link constraint is acting.


The Length menu

Syntax:

  Geometry --> Links (coupled) --> Length --> Double
                                              Half
                                              Default

This sub-menu allows to adjust the length of the links arrows. The Double and Half commands can be issued repeatedly in order to achieve (almost) any desired length of the arrows.

16.8  The Vectors menu

V.80


Object:

The Vectors menu allows to visualize a vectorial field on the body geometry in the form of vectors (arrows). The vector field can be expressed at nodes (most commonly) or at the element centroids (e.g. in the case of Cell-Centred Finite Volumes).


Syntax:

  Vectors --> No vectors
              Scaled vectors
              Colored vectors
              Scaled colored vectors
              Field                  --> <list of available fields>
              Scale                  --> ...
              Length                 --> ...
              Color scheme           --> ...
              Options                --> ...

The various sub-menus are described next.

16.8.1  The Scale menu


Syntax:

  Vectors --> Scale --> Auto 6
                        Auto 14
                        User

This sub-menu allows to choose the scale for the vector field.

Note that from January 2016 the 14-color scale has become the default for colored vectors rendering, and not the 6-color scale. Furthermore, the vectors scale is automatically popped up as soon as some vectors representation is activated, and popped down when no vectors are shown.

16.8.2  The Length menu


Syntax:

  Vectors --> Length --> Double
                         Half
                         Default

This sub-menu allows to modify the length of the vector arrows in the current drawing, without modifying the vectors scale. The commands may be used repeatedly in order to obtain (almost) any desired length of the arrows.

16.8.3  The Color scheme menu


Syntax:

  Vectors --> Color scheme --> Colors
                               Grayscale
                               Inverted colors
                               Inverted grayscale

This sub-menu allows to choose the color scheme of the vector arrows, if any (i.e., unless the vectors are rendered in the Scaled vectors mode).

16.8.4  The Options menu


Syntax:

  Vectors --> Options --> Show internal vectors

This sub-menu allows to choose some options related to the visualization of vector fields.

16.9  The Isovalues menu

V.90


Object:

The Isovalues menu allows to visualize a vectorial field on the body geometry in the form of vectors (arrows). The vector field can be expressed at nodes (most commonly) or at the element centroids (e.g. in the case of Cell-Centred Finite Volumes).

The Isovalues menu allows to represent a scalar field on the body geometry, in the form of iso values. The scalar field can be expressed either at the element centroids or at the nodes. Various types of representation are possible.


Syntax:

  Isovalues --> No iso
                Iso lines
                Iso fill
                Iso fill lines
                Iso fill elements
                Iso smooth
                Iso smooth lines
                Iso smooth elements
                Iso surfaces
                Iso surfaces lines
                Shiny iso surfaces
                Field               --> <list of available fields>
                Component           --> <list of available components>
                Scale               --> ...
                Color scheme        --> ...

The various sub-menus are described next.

16.9.1  The Scale menu


Syntax:

  Vectors --> Scale --> Auto 6
                        Auto 14
                        User
                        Auto 1

This sub-menu allows to choose the scale for the isovalues field.

Note that from January 2016 the 14-color scale has become the default for colored iso rendering, and not the 6-color scale. Furthermore, the iso scale is automatically popped up as soon as some iso representation is activated, and popped down when no iso are shown.

16.9.2  The Color scheme menu


Syntax:

  Vectors --> Color scheme --> Colors
                               Grayscale
                               Inverted colors
                               Inverted grayscale

This sub-menu allows to choose the color scheme of the iso values representation.

16.10  The Text menu

V.100


Object:

The Text menu may be used to visualize some textual information, such as node numbers, object names etc., in addition or in alternative to the problem title, time value and time step, which appear by default in the top left corner of the graphical window.


Syntax:

  Text --> Show node numbers
           Show element numbers
           Show object names
           Show vectors scale
           Show iso scale
           Hide info
           Show camera values
           Show debug info
           Show pinball contacts

16.11  The Colors menu

V.110


Object:

The Colors menu allows to change the colors that are assigned by default to those components of the scene which are rendered in a fixed color. This is accomplished in two steps:

  1. First, a color is selected from the Colors1) Select color menu. The available choices are listed below.
  2. Then, the component to which the color must be applied is selected from the Colors2) Apply it to menu. The available choices are listed below.

Syntax:

  Colors --> 1) Select color --> <list of available colors>
             2) Apply it to  --> <list of colorized scene components>
             Default for screen
             Default for paper

Note that from January 2016 the paper-suited color scheme has become the default scheme even for on-screen rendering (while the screen scheme was the default previously). This is because when hard-copies of the graphical window are produced, the paper color scheme is probably more suitable for inclusion of figures into paper (or even on-line) documentation.

The various sub-menus are described next.

16.11.1  The 1) Select color menu

  Colors --> 1) Select color --> Red
                                 Green
                                 Blue
                                 Cyan
                                 Magenta
                                 Yellow
                                 Black
                                 White
                                 Grey05
                                 Grey10
                                 Grey15
                                 Grey20
                                 Grey25
                                 Grey30
                                 Grey35
                                 Grey40
                                 Grey45
                                 Grey50
                                 Grey55
                                 Grey60
                                 Grey65
                                 Grey70
                                 Grey75
                                 Grey80
                                 Grey85
                                 Grey90
                                 Grey95

The color names from Red to White are self-explaining. As concerns the greys, they range from nearly black (Grey05) to nearly white (Grey95).

16.11.2  The 2) Apply it to menu

  Colors --> 2) Apply it to --> Background
                                Center
                                Bounding box
                                Internal faces
                                Element outlines
                                Sharp corners
                                Free edges
                                Perp contours
                                Vectors
                                Iso surface edges
                                Iso surface outlines
                                Points
                                Node numbers
                                Element numbers
                                Object names
                                Text
                                Initial wireframe
                                Initial outline
                                Debris trajectories
                                Iso default color

16.12  The Lights/Mats menu

V.120


Object:

The Lights/Mats menu allows to switch on or off the light and to assign an appearance (“material”) to the whole mesh or to selected portions of it (objects). Lighting affects rendering of the scene and adds a touch of realism. The choice of materials takes place in two steps:

  1. First, a material is selected from the Lights/Mats1) Select material menu. The available choices are listed below.
  2. Then, the object to which the material must be applied is selected from the Lights/Mats2) Apply it to menu. The available choices are listed below.

Syntax:

  Lights/Mats --> Switch light on
                  Light X             --> ...
                  Light Y             --> ...
                  Light Z             --> ...
                  Light ambient       --> ...
                  Light diffuse       --> ...
                  Light specular      --> ...
                  Light shininess     --> ...
                  Light model ambient --> ...
                  Reset lights
                  1) Select material  --> <list of available materials>
                  2) Apply it to      --> ...
                  Reset materials

The various sub-menus are described next.

16.12.1  The Light X menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light X --> Left
                              Centre
                              Right

16.12.2  The Light Y menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light Y --> Bottom
                              Centre
                              Top

16.12.3  The Light Z menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light Z --> Front
                              Centre
                              Back

16.12.4  The Light ambient menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light ambient --> Low
                                    Medium
                                    High

16.12.5  The Light diffuse menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light diffuse --> Low
                                    Medium
                                    High

16.12.6  The Light specular menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light specular --> Low
                                     Medium
                                     High

16.12.7  The Light shininess menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light shininess --> Low
                                      Medium
                                      High

16.12.8  The Light model ambient menu

  Lights/Mats --> Light model ambient --> Low
                                          Medium
                                          High

16.12.9  The 1) Select material menu

  Lights/Mats --> 1) Select material --> Brass
                                         Bronze
                                         Polished bronze
                                         Chrome
                                         Copper
                                         Polished copper
                                         Gold
                                         Gold2
                                         Polished gold
                                         Pewter
                                         Silver
                                         Polished silver
                                         Emerald
                                         Jade
                                         Obsidian
                                         Pearl
                                         Ruby
                                         Turquoise
                                         Black plastic
                                         Cyan plastic
                                         Green plastic
                                         Red plastic
                                         White plastic
                                         Yellow plastic
                                         Black rubber
                                         Black rubber2
                                         Cyan rubber
                                         Green rubber
                                         Red rubber
                                         White rubber
                                         Yellow rubber

The material names are self-explaining. Of course these are not real materials but are only used to set the surface appearance for the rendering process.

16.12.10  The 2) Apply it to menu

  Colors --> 2) Apply it to --> Whole mesh
                                Selected objects

16.13  The Win/Copy menu

V.130


Object:

The Win/Copy menu allows to resize the window to precise predefined sizes and to produce a copy on file of the current scene. The copy is not a simple dump of the graphical window, but a separate rendering in memory, which is successively dumped on a file in the well-known .BMP format (or in a number of other available formats, see below). Such images are then easily inserted in publications or may be used to produce animated sequences. Several options are available, as described below.

Note also that, of course, it is also possible to resize the graphical window interactively at any moment by means of the usual Windows techniques. However, it is generally difficult in that way to achieve a precise size of the graphicsl window. The default size of the graphical window is 500× 500 pixels.


Syntax:

  Win/Copy --> Window 320*240
               Window 600*600
               Window 640*480
               Window 800*600
               Window 1024*768
               Window 1200*1200
               Window 1280*1024
               Bitmap format    --> <available bitmap formats>
               Copy as is
               Copy public. (1600*1200)
               Copy poster (1800*1800)

It is important to note that when planning to use the bitmap for producing an animation all the “frames” must be of the same size. To obtain bitmaps of sizes other than “publication” (1600*1200) or “poster” (1800*1800), first resize the window either by hand or, preferably, by one of the above Window www*hhh commands, and then use the Copy as is command.

The various sub-menus are described next.

16.13.1  The Bitmap format menu

  Win/Copy --> Bitmap format --> BMP
                                 PPM (binary)
                                 PPM (Ascii)
                                 TGA
                                 EPS (color)
                                 EPS (b&w)
                                 POV-Ray

Previous Up Next