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11  GROUP O—INTERACTIVE COMMANDS

O.01


Object


This Section describes all the interactive commands which can be issued during a foreground (interactive) execution of the code. To launch EUROPLEXUS in interactive mode, include the CONV keyword at the beginning of the input file, as described in Section ?? (Page A.25).


When interactive execution is chosen, EUROPLEXUS reads the input data-set as usual, performs step 0 to initialise the computation, then prompts the user for commands from the keyboard with the phrase: COMMANDE ?.


The user can then issue various commands and subcommands typically from the keyboard in order to pilot the computation. For example, he can ask the program to perform a certain number of steps, then to pause again for further commands. Each time the calculation is paused, the current computational model can be visualized (e.g. by means of the built-in OpenGL-based visualization module) and information concerning the computation (time step, CPU time, etc.) can be printed. Furthermore, the current time step can be varied by the user.


As an alternative to typing commands by hand from the keyboard, such commands may be included in the regular EUROPLEXUS input file by enclosing them into a special directive PLAY ... ENDPLAY as described in Section 9.6 (Page I.24) and in Section 10.7 (Page ED.140). For example, this may be useful when the “interactive” command have to be saved for later re-execution, or when the command sequence is particularly complex, e.g. for the production of an animated visualization sequence.


COMMANDS

The following Sections list all the available “interactive” commands:

11.1  Primary interactive commands

O.10


Object


To pilot a calculation interactively. Note, however, that it is also possible to store such commands within the regular EUROPLEXUS input file (rather than typing them at the keyboard) and then to execute them by means of the PLAY directive, described on Page I.24. In this way, the unique functionalities offered by the “interactive” commands become available also for unattended code execution, allowing e.g. to automatize the production of graphics or animated sequences.


Syntax


Here is the syntax of interactive commands and subcommands:

 $ "?"                                                               $
 $ "GO"                                                              $
 $ "STOP"                                                            $
 $ "INFO"                                                            $
 $ "FREQ" npas                                                       $
 $ "TFRE" tfreq                                                      $
 $ <$ HPIN ; NOHP $>                                                 $
 $ "CALC" $ "?"        $                                             $
 $        $ "AUTO"     $                                             $
 $        $ "UTIL"     $                                             $
 $        $ "DT" tstep $                                             $
 $        $ "R"        $                                             $
 $ "TRAC" $ "?"                                                    $ $
 $        $ "NORM"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "ELEM" i1 i2                                           $ $
 $        $ "ZOOM" $ "?"                        $                  $ $
 $        $        $ "POIN" xmin ymin xmax ymax $                  $ $
 $        $        $ "RETI"                     $                  $ $
 $        $        $ "R"                        $                  $ $
 $        $ "OEIL" xoeil yoeil zoeil                               $ $
 $        $ "CULL"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "NOCU"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "NUME" $ "NOEU" $                                      $ $
 $        $        $ "ELEM" $                                      $ $
 $        $ "NONU"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "R"                                                    $ $
 $        $ "CDEP"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "CDNO"                                                 $ $
 $        $ <$ "FAIL" ; "NFAI" ; "FANF" $>                         $ $
 $        $ "OBJE" /LECT/ <SURF ; FSIN /LECT/>                     $ $
 $        $ "NOOB" "NOGR" "OMEM"                                   $ $
 $        $ "PINB"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "PINC"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "DEFO"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "AMPD" ampd                                            $ $
 $        $ "VITE"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "VITG"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "AMPV" ampv                                            $ $
 $        $ "FEXT"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "FINT"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "AMPF" ampf                                            $ $
 $        $ "DASH" idsh                                            $ $
 $        $ "AVS" | "DEPL" "VITE" "FEXT" "ACCE" "MCXX"             $ $
 $        $         "VITG" "FINT" "CONT" "EPST" "ECRO"             $ $
 $        $         "ECRC" /LECT/                                | $ $
 $        $ "PS"                                                   $ $
 $        $ "MIF"                                                  $ $
 $        $ "POVR"                                                 $ $
 $        $ "P10"                                                  $ $
 $        $ < <"OFFS" <"SIZE" w h> <$ "RPOV" ; "BPOV"$>            $ $
 $        $           <"ZIP"> <"FICH" $ "BMP"        $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "PPM"        $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "PPMA"       $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "TGA"        $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "EPS"        $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "EPSB"       $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "PRAY"       $             $ $
 $        $                           $ "AVI" <pars> $ <'base'> >  $ $
 $        $   <"SYMX"> <"SYMY"> <"EXTZ nz dz>                      $ $
 $        $   <"AXIS" na ang> <"NOSY">                             $ $
 $        $   <"SAVE"> <"REUS">                           "REND" > $ $
 $ <Keystrokes and mouse events (OpenGL visualizer): see Page O.15>  $
 $ "MAVI" <"DUMP"> <"FROM" 'base'> <"UZIP"> <"RZIP"> <"TO" 'to'>     $
 $        <"FIRS" firs> <"LAST" last> <"STEP" step"> <pars> "REND"   $
 $ "CAME" icam < "EYE" ex ey ez >                                    $
 $        < $ "Q" qr qx qy qz                               $        $
 $          $ "VIEW" vz vy vz "RIGH" rx ry rz "UP" ux uy uz $ >      $
 $        < FOV fovy >                                               $
 $ "LCAM"                                                            $
 $ "SLER" "CAM1" ic1 <"CAM2" ic2> <"NFRA" nfra>                      $
 $        <INTE /PROG/> <CENT cx cy cz>                              $
 $ "LSLE"                                                            $
 $ "SCEN" <spars>                                                    $
 $ "TITL" <tpars>                                                    $
 $ "GOTR" <"LOOP" n> <trac_options> trac_terminator                  $
 $ "R"                                                               $
 $ "TIME"                                                            $
 $ "BENS"                                                            $
 $ "NOBE"                                                            $
 $ "QMS"                                                             $
 $ "COPY"                                                            $
 $ "MEAS" <measurement commands> TERM                                $
 $ "ADAP" ($ "SPLI" iel ; "SPLI" "OBJE" /LECT/ ;
 $           "USPL" jel ; "USPL" "OBJE" /LECT/ $ ) TERM                        $
?

Lists the available primary interactive commands.
GO

Advances the computation of npas time steps.
STOP

Stops the computation.
INFO

Prints information: current time and step number of the computation, time step increment, stability step and critical time step.
FREQ

In a direct calculation, this specifies the interval (in time steps) between two successive interruptions of the calculation. Initial value is 1. The computation will halt every npas steps (counted from step 0!) and prompt for commands. This command may be combined with TFRE, see below. Note that in a post-treatment calculation (RESU keyword, which reads previously stored data from a results file, typically an ALIC file) the meaning of npas is different: it indicates the storage stations and not the time step numbers. Furthermore, in this case the FREQ and TFRE commands may not be combined (i.e., either npas or tfreq must be 0).
npas

Computation interval in time steps (or in storage stations).
TFRE

In a direct calculation, this specifies the interval (in time) between two successive interruptions of the calculation. Initial value is 0.0. The computation will halt every tfreq time units (counted from the initial time!) and prompt for commands. This command may be combined with FREQ, see above. Note that in a post-treatment calculation (RESU keyword, which reads previously stored data from a results file, typically an ALIC file) the FREQ and TFRE commands may not be combined (i.e., either npas or tfreq must be 0).
tfreq

Computation interval in time units.
HPIN

Halt interactive execution whenever pinball contacts are established (passing from a situation of zero contacts to one or more contacts) or completely disappear (passing from one or more contacts to zero contacts), so that the user may e.g. visualize the contacts. This switch has a toggling behaviour (see comments and sample usage below).
NOHP

Do not halt interactive execution whenever pinball contacts appear or disappear. This is the default so normally it does not need to be specified explicitly. However, the keyword is useful to restore the default behaviour after the optional keyword HPIN has been specified.
CALC

Allows to change the current time step increment. See options below.
TRAC

Displays (on graphics screens) or plots (on plotting devices) the current, deformed mesh shape. By default the entire mesh is visuaized. See options below.
Keystrokes and mouse commands

When using the OpenGL built-in visualizer interactively, some keystrokes and mouse events are interpreted as commands. A complete list of these commands is given in Page O.15.
MAVI

Make an animation file (.AVI) starting from a sequence of bitmap images. At the moment, this functionality is available only starting from bitmap files of type BMP. See syntax and options below.
CAME

Defines a camera for OpenGL rendering. See below for the various options.
LCAM

List all the cameras defined so far. Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, this directive is simply ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.
SLER

Defines a spherical linear interpolation (slerp) for OpenGL rendering. See below for the various options.
LSLE

List the currently valid slerp. Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, this directive is simply ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.
SCEN

Define the current scene parameters <spars> to be used for OpenGL rendering. See below for the various parameters.
TITL

Define the titles (<tpars>) to be used for the production of a titles frame (or AVI sequence) in off-screen OpenGL rendering. See below for the various parameters.
GOTR

Performs a GO followed by a TRAC. The sequence may be automatically repeated n times by using the LOOP sub-keyword. This command is useful, among other things, for the automatic preparation of image sequences or animations. See below for a complete description.
R

Repeat the last command issued (this works also if the preceding command was a GOTR).
TIME

Prints the current physical and CPU time.
BENS

Activates Benson plotter graphics output instead of screen output.
NOBE

Deactivates Benson plotter output; subsequent graphics are visualized on the screen.
QMS

Pilots a QMS laser printer directly connected to a graphics terminal (Tektronix emulation) to obtain a copy of the graphics appearing on the screen. This command was formerly used at JRC and is now obsolete.
COPY

Used at JRC to redirect Tektronix graphics output from the screen to a file, defined as logical unit number 17. The typical command sequence is "COPY TRAC NORM", by which the current mesh plot is added to the contents of the file connected to unit 17 (initially void). This can be later visualized again (under UNIX, by the ’cat file_name’ command) and/or printed.
MEAS ... TERM

Introduces some measurement commands, see the full syntax on page G.105.
ADAP ... TERM

Introduces interactive adaptivity commands. These commands may be repeated any number of times. The end of this directive is marked by the TERM keyword.
SPLI iel

Split element iel.
SPLI OBJE /LECT/

Split the object defined by /LECT/.
USPL jel

Unsplit element jel.
USPL OBJE /LECT/

Unsplit the object defined by /LECT/.

Comments


An example of use of the HPIN and NOHP keywords is as follows. Suppose a user wants to visualize contact details in a calculation using pinballs. Normally it is difficult to exactly foresee when a contact will be established and/or it will disappear. Use the following interactive commands:

  FREQ 1000000
  HPIN
  GO

In this way, the code will halt when the first pinball contact is detected and the user will have the possibility of visualizing the contact conditions. Then, type again:

  GO

The execution will continue and will halt again when there are no more pinball contacts (toggling behaviour). This is useful because normally a contact remains for a number of successive time steps after it has first occurred. Then, type again:

  GO

The calculation will halt when a new contact is detected, and so on.


Note that the HPIN keyword is automatically combined with the effects of FREQ, TFRE etc. The first of the specified conditions which occurs determines code halting.


To disable this behaviour and restore the normal behaviour, use the NOHP command.


Example of interactive adaptivity


To pilot adaptivity interactively, proceed as follows (this is useful mainly for debugging purposes). Assume we have a base mesh of quadrilaterals with ten elements. We want to split elements 1 and 3 at step 1, generating descendent elements 11 to 18. Then at step 2 we want to further split element 15. Finally, at step 3 we want to unsplit element 1. At each step we want to dump out the whole adaptivity data structure for debugging, and also plot the adapted mesh.


We can do this either interactively or in batch mode (via the PLAY ... ENDPLAY command).


In the second case, the input would be as follows.

  Title of test
  CONV win
  <normal input of a test case with adaptivity>
  ECRI ... FREQ 1
  OPTI ADAP DUMP ! to dump out adaptivity data structure at printouts
  CALC ...
  PLAY
    TRAC REND               ! draw base mesh at step 0
    ADAP SPLI 1 SPLI 2 TERM ! split elements 1 and 2
    GO                      ! compute step 1
    TRAC REND               ! draw adapted mesh at step 1
    ADAP SPLI 15 TERM       ! further split element 15
    GO                      ! compute step 2
    TRAC REND               ! draw adapted mesh at step 2
    ADAP USPL 1 TERM        ! unsplit element 1
    GO                      ! compute step 3
    TRAC REND               ! draw adapted mesh at step 3
    STOP                    ! terminate calculation
  ENDPLAY


Obviously, the same interactive commands can also be typed from the keyboard, if one removes the PLAY ... ENDPLAY block from the input file.


Note that the first time station at which adaptivity commands can be prescribed is step 1 (not step 0), because step 0 is always computed by the code before asking for interactive commands for the first time.

11.2  Keystrokes and mouse events in the OpenGL graphical visualizer

O.15


Object


When using the built-in OpenGL graphical visualizer interactively, some keystrokes and mouse events are interpreted as navigation commands.


Keystrokes


A list of the available keystrokes is given in the following Table.


KeyActionAmountCTRL-CTRL/SHIFT-SHIFT-
0 (zero)Reset default view
Up arrowRotate camera “up”511030
Down arrowRotate camera “down”511030
Left arrowRotate camera “left”511030
Right arrowRotate camera “right”511030
PgUpRotate camera anticlockwise511030
InsRotate camera clockwise511030
bTranslate camera backwardsR/2R/10R3R
fTranslate camera forwardsR/2R/10R3R
iZoom camera in (without moving)× 1.2× 1.1× 1.5× 2.0
oZoom camera out (without moving)× 1.2× 1.1× 1.5× 2.0
rMove camera rightwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
lMove camera leftwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
uMove camera upwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
dMove camera downwards (free mode only)R/2R/10R3R
Table 4: Available keystrokes.

The keystrokes are not case sensitive: for example, b has the same effect as B. Some keystrokes (r, l, u and d) have effect only when the camera is set in “free navigation” mode (not in “rotating” mode). In order to change the camera navigation mode interactively, press the right mouse button in order to bring up the interactive menu and then use the Geometry → Navigation sub-menu.

The description of motions refers to the “camera” model, i.e. to the ideal observer. If preferred, the user may think of the same motion as applied to the object that is being viewed, by just inverting the “sign” of the motion. For example, the “Left arrow” key rotates the observer to the left or, alternatively, the object to the right.

Each motion has pre-defined amounts: 5 degrees for rotations, 1/2 of the object radius for translations, 20% magnification/reduction for zooming. Smaller amounts may in some cases be obtained by pressing the Control key (CTRL), larger ones by the Control-Shift keys (CTRL-SHIFT), and even larger amounts by the Shift key (SHIFT) in conjunction with any of the above described keys. For example, the keys combination CTRL-PgUp turns the camera by 1 degree, CTRL/SHIFT-PgUp turns it by 10 degrees and SHIFT-PgUp turns it by 30 degrees.


Mouse events

A simple and intuitive way of moving the model (or the observer) which is alternative to the keyboard commands described above is by means of the mouse.

With the navigation mode set in “rotating” camera mode, by pressing the left mouse button while the pointer is inside the graphical window, a sort of “virtual trackball” is activated. The object “follows” any subsequent motions of the mouse by rotating around its centerpoint in the corresponding direction.

The effects that may be obtained with the left mouse button are summarized below.


ActionEffect
Press left buttonThe object starts “following” the mouse cursor by rotating around its centerpoint
Release button while not movingThe object stops rotating, in the final position reached during the previous motion
Move button while pressedThe object follows the mouse motion
Release button while movingThe object continues to “spin” around its centerpoint along the last rotation axis that was active immediately before releasing the button (sort of continuous animation)
Release button while not movingThe object stops rotating, in the final position reached during the previous motion
Table 5: Available mouse events.

Some experimentation will make readily clear what the above somewhat complicated verbal descriptions mean.

A situation which may arise with inexperienced users is that, after using the mouse to rotate the body, it does not stop but it continues “forever” its rotation. This happens when the mouse button is released while still moving (though slowly) the mouse. To stop a rotating object, the following technique may be used: just give a single, quick “click” of the mouse in the window (i.e. press and then immediately release the button) by making sure that you do not move the mouse meanwhile.

11.3  CALCUL options

O.20


Object


To pilot current time step.


Syntax:

    "CALC"    $ "?"        $
              $ "AUTO"     $
              $ "UTIL"     $
              $ "DT" tstep $
              $ "R"        $
?

Lists available subcommands
AUTO

Sets automatic time step calculation (see "OPTI PAS AUTO").
UTIL

Sets fixed time step (see "OPTI PAS UTIL")
DT

Set fixed time step to following value.
tstep

Time step value.
R

Return to primary commands.

11.4  TRACE options

O.30


Object


To set options for successive mesh visualizations.


Syntax

   "TRAC" $ "?"                                                  $
          $ "NORM"                                               $
          $ "ELEM" i1 i2                                         $
          $ "ZOOM" $ "?"                        $                $
          $        $ "POIN" xmin ymin xmax ymax $                $
          $        $ "RETI"                     $                $
          $        $ "R"                        $                $
          $ "OEIL" xoeil yoeil zoeil                             $
          $ "CULL"                                               $
          $ "NOCU"                                               $
          $ "NUME" $ "NOEU" $                                    $
          $        $ "ELEM" $                                    $
          $ "NONU"                                               $
          $ "R"                                                  $
          $ "CDEP"                                               $
          $ "CDNO"                                               $
          $ <$ "FAIL" ; "NFAI" ; "FANF" $>                       $
          $ "OBJE" /LECT/ <SURF ; FSIN /LECT/>                   $
          $ <"NOEL"> "OBJN" /LECT/                               $
          $ "NOOB" "NOGR" "OMEM" "NOIS"                          $
          $ "PINB"                                               $
          $ "PINC"                                               $
          $ "DEFO"                                               $
          $ "AMPD" ampd                                          $
          $ "VITE"                                               $
          $ "VITG"                                               $
          $ "AMPV" ampv                                          $
          $ "FEXT"                                               $
          $ "FINT"                                               $
          $ "AMPF" ampf                                          $
          $ "DASH" idsh                                          $
          $ "AVS" | "DEPL" "VITE" "FEXT" "ACCE" "MCXX"           $
          $         "VITG" "FINT" "CONT" "EPST" "ECRO"           $
          $         "ECRC" /LECT/                          |     $
          $ "PS"                                                 $
          $ "MIF"                                                $
          $ "POVR"                                               $
          $ "P10"                                                $
          $ < <"OFFS" <"SIZE" w h> <$ "RPOV" ; "BPOV"$>          $
          $           <"ZIP"> <"FICH" $ "BMP"        $           $
          $                           $ "PPM"        $           $
          $                           $ "PPMA"       $           $
          $                           $ "TGA"        $           $
          $                           $ "EPS"        $           $
          $                           $ "EPSB"       $           $
          $                           $ "PRAY"       $           $
          $                           $ "AVI" <pars> $ <'base'> >$
          $   <"SYMX"> <"SYMY"> <"EXTZ" nz dz>                   $
          $   <"SYXY"> <"SYYZ"> <"SYXZ">                         $
          $   < $ "AXIS" ; "AXOL" $ na ang> <"TOLS" tols>        $
          $   <"NOSY">                                           $
          $   <"SAVE"> <"REUS">                         "REND" > $
?

Lists available subcommands.
NORM

Displays current mesh according to current options.
ELEM i1 i2

Chooses elements i1 to i2 for display. To select a non-contiguous set of elements use the OBJE directive, see below.
ZOOM

Activates zoom display mode.
OEIL x y z

Sets position of viewpoint (3D only) for parallel projection.
CULL

Activates backfacing polygon culling (3D only).
NOCU

Deactivates backface polygon culling (default).
NUME

Activates number visualization for nodes and/or elements.
NONU

Deactivates number visualization (default).
R

Returns to primary commands.
CDEP

Represents 3D degenerated shells of type CQDx with their physical thickness (the topological thickness of these elements is zero). All other element types are automatically hidden in the plot.
CDNO

Represents 3D degenerated shells of type CQDx with their topological (zero) thickness. This is the default.
FAIL

Allows to choose for display only the failed elements. By default, all elements (both failed and non-failed) are chosen for display. Note that failed elements have a tendency to assume strange forms due to excessive deformation. This is not a problem since they are excluded from the calculation after failure. Note also that for elements of type DEBR (flying debris particle), this keyword has a special meaning: it visualizes only the idle debris particles, i.e. those attached to a not-yet failed element (which is not shown, since it is not failed).
NFAI

Allows to choose for display only the non-failed elements. By default, all elements (both failed and non-failed) are chosen for display. Note that failed elements have a tendency to assume strange forms due to excessive deformation. This is not a problem since they are excluded from the calculation after failure. Note also that for elements of type DEBR (flying debris particle), this keyword has a special meaning: it visualizes only the active debris particles, i.e. those resulting from the fragmentation of a previously failed element (which is not shown, since it is failed).
FANF

Allows to choose for display both the failed and the non-failed elements. This is the default, so this keyword is normally redundant.
OBJE

Allows to choose non-consecutive elements for display. The list of elements is given in the following /LECT/ and may be in the form of one or more CASTEM2000 objects. This directive is alternative to the ELEM directive, which only allows to specify a range of consecutive elements. To draw a set of nodes instead of (or in addition to) a set of elements, see the OBJN directive below and the techniques described in the comments at the end of this Section (see “Drawing nodes alone or in conjunction with elements”).
SURF

Allows to choose only the external surface of the chosen object. This greatly reduces the amount of information to treat in the graphical module with respect to the full 3D case in large and complicated models (but of course it prevents the possibility of visualizing results in the internal parts of the model). This visualization mode makes sense only in 3D and requires the presence of continuum-like fluid elements. This option is only available for the OpenGL-based visualizer (TRAC ... REND) and, if specified, it must immediately follow the OBJE /LECT/ directive (so it is mutually exclusive with the FSIN keyword described below).
FSIN

Allows to visualize only the fluid-structure interface portions of the fluid part of the chosen object. These appear as fluid element faces “sticking” onto the matching structural parts, if any are specified as well. For optimal visualization in the OpenGL renderer, it is suggested to turn on backface rendering and to apply some shrinking, e.g. by the directive (see the SCEN directive below): SCEN ... GEOM SHRI 0.98 ISOL FACE SBAC .... The following /LECT/ lists the concerned fluid nodes, i.e. the fluid nodes that lie on the fluid-structure interface: in simple cases these are just the same nodes used in the FSA and/or FSR directives. A fluid face is drawn if and only if all its nodes belong to the given /LECT/. This visualization mode makes sense only in 3D and requires the presence of continuum-like fluid elements. This option is only available for the OpenGL-based visualizer (TRAC ... REND) and, if specified, it must immediately follow the OBJE /LECT/ directive (so it is mutually exclusive with the SURF keyword described above).
NOEL

Do not show any elements in the visualization. This should probably be used in combination with the following OBJN directive.
OBJN

Choose a set of nodes (specified in the following /LECT/) for visualization, rather than a set of elements. If the following /LECT/ contains elements (e.g. via a Cast3m object name), the nodes of the object (not the elements) are chosen for visualization (as a cloud of thick points). To visualize only a set of nodes, say p1 and fsan, the command is TRAC NOEL OBJN LECT p1 fsan TERM REND. To visualize both a set of elements, say flui, and a set of nodes the command is TRAC OBJE LECT flui TERM OBJN LECT p1 fsan TERM REND. To visualize all elements with a set of nodes highlighted as thick points the command is TRAC OBJN LECT p1 fsan TERM REND.
Other techniques that can be used to visualize a set of nodes alone or in addition to a set of elements are described below in the comments at the end of this Section (see “Drawing nodes alone or in conjunction with elements”).
NOOB

Do not make available object names (either defined by CAST3M or by I-DEAS) in the graphical rendering module. This option may be useful to speed up the rendering operations since the number of defined objects is sometimes very large. By default, object names are made available in on-screen rendering, because the user may decide interactively to use them. In off-screen rendering, they are made available only if they are needed for the visualization of the specified scene.
NOGR

Do not make available element group names (defined by the GROU directive, see page C.61) nor node group names (defined by the NGRO directive, see page C.62) in the graphical rendering module. By default, group names are made available in on-screen rendering, because the user may decide interactively to use them. In off-screen rendering, they are made available only if they are needed for the visualization of the specified scene.
OMEM

Optimize memory during the graphical rendering, at the expense of some (or may be a lot) more CPU time. This optional keyword should only be activated in extreme cases where the size of the geometrical model is so large that the memory is not sufficient to render it (the graphics-related arrays are too big). In this way the code tries to save memory by computing some big arrays “on the fly” rather than storing them in memory. An example is the representation of iso-surfaces in very large fluid volumes. This is only useful in off-screen rendering, since in on-screen rendering any manipulation of the mesh (e.g. rotation, zoom etc.) would be extremely slow. Furthermore, if there is memory shortage, then off-screen rendering is by far preferable since only the strictly necessary tables are allocated, in contrast to on-screen (interactive) rendering. Another way of saving some memory is to specify also the NOOB and NOGR keywords described above, if objects/groups are not needed.
NOIS

Do not make available the “true” element fields for visualization in iso form in the graphical rendering module. This option may be useful to speed up the rendering operations since the number of data for the true element fields (stresses, hardening components, etc.) is sometimes very large. By default, all element fields are made available in on-screen rendering when no SCEN is specified, so that the user can decide interactively to show any of them. In off-screen rendering (or in on-screen rendering with a specified SCEN), only the element field (if any) needed for the visualization of the specified scene is made available. Recall for completeness that all nodal fields are always made availavble for visualization under iso-value form, in on-screen rendering.
PINB

Draw the pinballs declared by the LIAI PINB directive. These are represented by circles. If this directive is combined with the TRAC DEFO directive, then the displacement amplification facor (AMPD) must be 1.0.
PINC

Draw the contacting (sub-)pinballs. These are represented by circles. A straight line joins the centers of each couple of contacting (sub-)pinballs. If this directive is combined with the TRAC DEFO directive, then the displacement amplification facor (AMPD) must be 1.0.
DEFO

This directive produces a plot of the initial, undeformed geometry of the model, superposed to the deformed one, which is plotted by default. The initial geometry is traced using a dashed line style (see directive DASH below) in order to distinguish it better from the current one. If this directive is combined with the TRAC PINB or TRAC PINC directive, then the amplification factor AMPD must be set at 1.0.
AMPD

Sets the amplification factor for displacements used to draw the deformed geometry. By default it is 1.0. If this directive is combined with the TRAC PINB or TRAC PINC directive, then the amplification factor must be 1.0.
VITE

This directive produces a plot of the material velocity vectors, superposed to the deformed mesh.
VITG

This directive produces a plot of the grid (mesh) velocity vectors, superposed to the deformed mesh.
AMPV

Sets the amplification factor for velocity vectors. By default it is 1.0.
FEXT

This directive produces a plot of the external force vectors, superposed to the deformed mesh.
FINT

This directive produces a plot of the internal force vectors, superposed to the deformed mesh.
AMPF

Sets the amplification factor for force vectors. By default it is 1.0.
DASH

Sets the line type for plotting the initial geometry, when "DEFO" is specified. There are 4 different styles, so idsh should be from 1 to 4. By default, idsh=3.
AVS

Produce a storage for AVS postprocessing. The variable(s) to be stored (each one on a separate file) are specified next. Before listing the variables, one may optionally specify a deformation factor (1.0 by default) via the DEFO directive and an object via the OBJE directive (by default the entire mesh is stored). Note that output results for AVS may also be produced (in “batch” modality) by means of the ECRI FICH AVS directive, see page G.70.
DEPL

Store displacements for AVS post-processing. In this case the geometry stored is the initial one and displacements are also stored as a nodal field. For all other variables, the stored geometry is the current (deformed) one.
VITE

Store particle velocity for AVS post-processing.
FEXT

Store external forces (including reactions) for AVS post-processing.
ACCE

Store particle acceleration for AVS post-processing.
MCXX

Store multicomponent fluid variables for AVS post-processing.
VITG

Store grid velocity for AVS post-processing.
FINT

Store internal forces for AVS post-processing.
CONT

Store stresses for AVS post-processing.
EPST

Store total strains (still to be implemented for AVS post-processing.
ECRO

Store hardening quantities for AVS post-processing. The relevant components are chosed by ECRC.
ECRC

Select ECR components to be chosen (/LECT/).
PS

Produce output on PostScript file instead of screen.
MIF

Produce output on MIF (FrameMaker) file instead of screen.
POVR

Produce output in the form of a POV-Ray (Persistence of Vision Ray tracer) file instead of screen. Only the geometry is stored.
P10

Produce PLOT-10 (Tektronix) output on file instead of screen (available also on MS-Windows).
<OFFS ...> REND

Start OpenGL rendering (currently available only under MS-Windows or Linux). The rendering process may take place either on-screen (the default) or off-screen (in a file), as specified by the OFFS sub-directive (see full description below) which, if present, must precede the REND keyword. Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, the TRAC ... REND directive is simply (and entirely) ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.
SYMX

Perform a symmetry with respect to the X-axis before rendering. (This option is still under development).
SYMY

Perform a symmetry with respect to the Y-axis before rendering. (This option is still under development).
EXTZ nz dz

Perform an extrusion with respect to the Z-plane before rendering. The extrusion amount is dz, subdivided into nz increments. (This option is still under development).
SYXY

Perform a symmetry with respect to the XY-plane before rendering. (This option is still under development).
SYYZ

Perform a symmetry with respect to the YZ-plane before rendering. (This option is still under development).
SYXZ

Perform a symmetry with respect to the XZ-plane before rendering. (This option is still under development).
AXIS na ang

Perform an axial symmetry around the Y-axis before rendering. The total angle of symmetry is ang, subdivided into na increments. If necessary, a small hole is generated along the axis of symmetry of the symmetrized mesh in order to simplify the generation of symmetrized elements. This command supersedes an older version of the command that is still available via the AXOL command, see below. This new strategy is compatible with the use of SUPP.
AXOL na ang

Same as AXIS described above, but by using an older strategy for axisymmetric symmetrization. Any quadrangular element with only one point on the axis of revolution produces two new elements instead of just one. This version of the procedure does not need to generate a small hole in the symmetrized mesh along the axis of symmetry, but it is likely to be incompatible with SUPP.
TOLS tols

Set tolerance used for nodes relative positions in symmetries. For example, when asking for symmetrization with respect to plane XY, all nodes must either have z≤ 0 or z≥ 0. The absolute nodal positions are divided by the maximum size of the visualized object along the coordinate axes in order to obtain relative values. Default value of tols is 1.E-5. One may try to slightly increase this value in case an error is printed by the code (this happens when some nodes lie “slightly” on the wrong half-space for symmetrization).
NOSY

Disable any symmetries previously defined by the SYMX, SYMY, EXTZ, SYXY, SYYZ, SYXZ and AXIS directives. Also, the symmetrization tolerance TOLS is reset to its default value (see above). Beware that when performing a visualization with symmetrization, the code remembers the symmetrization settings for the next visualizations. Therefore, the NOSY command can be used to reset all symmetrization parameters to their default (no symmetrization) and then use a different set of parameters, if needed.
SAVE

Save for the next rendering action(s) all geometrical quantities computed in the rendering process. Since the computation of these quantities is very CPU time consuming, this option may allow to considerably shorten the time required to produce animations composed by long sequences of frames in which the geometrical quantities stay constant and only the iso field or vector field change from frame to frame. The default is not to save the computed quantities. A typical use of SAVE/REUS would be in an Eulerian calculation, to show the time evolution of pressure field and velocity vectors in the fluid domain. The chosen domain (fluid) is always the same in all frames (although possibly the viewpoint may change) and the nodes do not move since they are Eulerian. The same optimization may be obtained also in an ALE calculation, if one visualizes only a completely Eulerian sub-domain: typical is the case of a fluid-structure interaction calculation with the FLSR model, where the fluid domain is typically completely Eulerian. For safety, the code verifies that all nodes to be visualized be Eulerian. If this rule is not respected, the geometrical quantities are re-computed and so no (or little) optimization takes place. This verification may be skipped by activating the OPTI REND NAVI option, see page H.170. With this option, the user declares that any changes in the following rendering operations will be due only to navigation (NAVI) around or inside a fixed (static) scene, so that use of SAVE/REUS becomes possible also in Lagrangian cases. In this case the user is responsible for making sure that no geometrical data vary between a rendering and the next one(s): the mesh does not move, no elements are eroded, adaptivity does not modify the current mesh, etc.
REUS

Re-use the geometrical quantities computed and saved in a preceding rendering process (by the SAVE option described above) rather than spend CPU time to recompute them. The default is to re-compute these quantities anew each time. Note that REUS is not compatible with symmetry commands, i.e. with the SYMX, SYMY, EXTZ and AXIS directives.

Comments


The CULL otion performs a very basic hidden surface removal. All element faces (polygons) whose outward normal points away from the observer are eliminated from the plot. This results in hidden surface removal for very simple, basic shapes, but is imperfect for complex, arbitrary geometries.


At each required AVS storage (see AVS above), one file is produced for each variable, with the name avs.<VARI>.N.inp, where <VARI> stands for the variable (i.e., DEPL, VITE etc.), and N is an integer counter which is automatically incremented by one each time storage is requested. Such files may be postprocessed interactively by AVS while EUROPLEXUS is running.


At each required POV-Ray storage (see POVR above), one file is produced containing the current geometry of the model. The file names are povray.GEOM.N.pov where N is an integer counter starting at 0 and incremented by one each time storage is requested. Such files may be postprocessed interactively by POV-Ray while EUROPLEXUS is running.


Symmetries


Note that these options are still under development.


The SYMX, SYMY, EXTZ and AXIS directives are only available in conjunction with OpenGL-based rendering (REND).


They may be combined, but the following combinations are invalid:


Furthermore, the following restrictions apply:


Off-screen rendering


The REND directive admits an optional OFFS sub-directive that allows to produce OpenGL rendered images off-screen and to prepare animations of the results. By default, when the OFFS keyword is specified alone, each frame of the scene is recorded in a bitmap file, having the name base_nnnn.<ext>, where base is the base name of the run, nnnn is a four-digit integer counter that starts at 0001 and is incremented automatically by the program, and <ext> is the file extension which depends upon the chosen file type.


The following bitmap file types are currently supported:

Such files are uncompressed by default and may therefore require a large disk space. To save space, the optional ZIP keyword may be specified, which automatically compresses the bitmap file after its generation.


In the case of a POV-Ray file, the optional RPOV keyword can be used to launch POV-Ray on the generated .pov file immediately after its creation (and before zipping it, if the ZIP keyword is specified as well). This will generate a .bmp file ready for use as an illustration or for preparation of an animation in EPX via the MAVI command. This of course requires that POV-Ray is installed on the platform where EPX is being run. Note that under Windows POV-Ray always opens a window even when it is launched from the command line (as it occurs with the RPOV or BPOV keywords). This may be slightly annoying, although the window is automatically closed when the execution of POV-Ray terminates.


As an alternative to RPOV keyword, one may use the BPOV keyword (for Batch POV-Ray execution), which will launch POV-Ray only at the end of the EPX job, and will process all the previously produced .pov files in a single execution of POV-Ray. This considerably speeds up the process of conversion from POV-Ray to bitmap files since POV-Ray is launched only once and processes all the files in a single execution. Also, only one POV-Ray window is created (and finally destroyed) on screen.


Note that in case of POV-Ray output the SAVE/REUS keywords described previously have a special meaning. The SAVE/REUS mechanism (combined with the OPTI REND NAVI option described on page H.170, if necessary) can be used in order to speed up and also to drastically reduce the disk storage needed when preparing a POV-Ray based animation. In such a case the geometrical data, which occupy a lot of space on disk, are written only once, when the first POV-Ray file is produced, in a “geometry” file named <base>_geom.pov. This file is then included in all following regular POV-Ray files <base>_0001.pov, <base>_0002.pov, etc., which will only contain the scene data that vary from frame to frame. The OPTI REND NAVI option is necessary if any of the nodes to be rendered with the SAVE/REUS mechanism are Lagrangian.


By specifying the optional keyword FICH, users may change the base name mentioned above: for example the sequence TRAC OFFS FICH BMP ’toto’ REND would produce frame files toto_0001.bmp, toto_0002.bmp, etc.

In addition (or in alternative), the user may request the production of an AVI animated sequence from the single frames. For example, the directive TRAC OFFS FICH AVI ’anim’ REND would produce an animation file anim_01.avi but no BMP frame files. To produce both the BMP frames and the AVI file, specify both options. The default name of the animation file (i.e. if ’base’ is omitted in the above syntax) is base_nn.avi where base is the base name of the run and nn is a two-digit integer counter that starts at 01 and is incremented automatically by the program.

By default, the size of off-screen generated (OFFS) bitmap and AVI files is of 500 pixels (width) by 500 pixels (height). To produce a different size, use the SIZE w h sub-directive where w is the width in pixels and h is the height in pixels. Both these quantities should be multiples of 4.

For on-screen generated images, the initial size as the window is popped up is of 500 pixels (width) by 500 pixels (height). This may then be changed interactively by the user.

The production of AVI files may be piloted by a sequence of parameters <pars> that are described below.


ZOOM suboptions

Syntax:

    "ZOOM" $ "?"                        $
           $ "POIN" xmin ymin xmax ymax $
           $ "RETI"                     $
           $ "R"                        $
?

Lists available subsubcommands.
POIN

Sets zoom window using coordinates of lower left and upper right corner.
xmin ymin

Coordinates of lower left window corner.
xmax ymax

Coordinates of upper right window corner.
RETI

Activates crosshair cursor for the definition of zoom window. Position the cursor with direction keys on lower left corner, then type <CR>, repeat for upper right corner.
R

Return to primary commands.

NUME suboptions

Syntax:

    "NUME" $ "NOEU" $
           $ "ELEM" $
NOEU

Activates node number display.
ELEM

Activates element number display.

Direct AVI file generation

Object


To generate directly an animated AVI file without using an external utility program that generates the AVI starting from a sequence of still frames (bitmaps).


A serious drawback for the use of this command, in particular during the (direct) calculation of a transient solution, is that the total number of frames in the animation (see NFTO below) must be set exactly. If for some reason the application stops before having written all the frames and having closed properly the AVI file, this file is unusable. The problem may be circumvented by producing bitmaps (frames) during the direct calculation, and then by making the AVI file separately starting from the frames sequence, as described in the MAVI directive below. In fact, in that case the program is able to determine the total number of frames automatically, if needed, because all the frames are available when the animation production is started. At the moment, the MAVI command is only available for bitmap images of type BMP.


Note that this functionality is based upon the Microsoft Video for Windows library and therefore it is currently available only on MS-Windows based platforms. If the following commands are issued on a different platform, they are simply ignored by EUROPLEXUS.


Syntax:

   TRAC   <OFFS <FICH AVI <pars> $ <'base'> > > REND

where <pars> represents the following syntax:

        <CONT> <NOCL>
        <NFTO nfto>
        <FPS fps> <COMP comp> <KFRE kfre> <CQUA cqua>
CONT

The AVI scene is a continuation of the AVI file created with a previous TRAC OFFS FICH AVI command during the same EUROPLEXUS run. This optional keyword allows to build up a complex animation as a series of simple sequences (scenes), each one produced by a separate command. By default (i.e. in the absence of the CONT keyword) a new AVI file is started. Note that, if present, the keywords CONT and/or NOCL must immediately follow the keyword AVI and come before the other optional keywords.
NOCL

Do not close the AVI file after writing the current scene. This allows to add further scenes by subsequent commands. By default, i.e. in the absence of the NOCL keyword, the AVI file is closed after writing the current scene. Note that, if present, the keywords CONT and/or NOCL must immediately follow the keyword AVI and come before the other optional keywords.
nfto

The total number of frames forming the AVI file animated sequence. Note that, unlike the following ones, this parameter is mandatory but only when the scene being defined is the first one of a multi-scene AVI file, i.e. when the CONT keyword is not present but the NOCL keyword is specified. When both CONT and NOCL are omitted, then the AVI file contains just one scene (the current one) and the (total) number of frames needs not be specified, since it may be obtained as the value given for the currently valid slerp (see SLER below).
nfto

The total number of frames forming the AVI file animated sequence. Note that, unlike the following ones, this parameter is mandatory.
fps

Number of frames per second for the visualization of the AVI file. If omitted, the default value of 5 frames per second is used.
comp

Compression type of the produced AVI file. The value -1 indicates that the Microsoft Video 1 codec has to be used. This codec is somewhat obsolete for realistic films, but perfectly adequate for the type of technical graphics produced by EUROPLEXUS, and has the advantage of being present on virtually any MS-Windows based computer. The value 1 produces a popup dialog box that allows the user to interactively choose (and somewhat configure) the desired codec from the list of those available on his platform. Obviously, this is adequate only for interactive execution of EUROPLEXUS (while the previous value -1 is the normal choice for unattended AVI file creation, i.e. batch execution). If omitted, the default value of 0 (no compression) is used. Note, however, that without compression the produced AVI file size grows very rapidly since it is simply the sum of the size of its (uncompressed) frames. An advantage of this choice is that the AVI file may be compressed a posteriori by means of an external utility (e.g. Virtualdub).
kfre

Key frame frequency. This parameter is only used when the Microsoft Video 1 codec is chosen (see comp above). The default value is 0, meaning that every frame is a key frame. This somewhat increases the file size but it simplifies navigation through it during playback.
cqua

Compression quality in %. This parameter is only used when the Microsoft Video 1 codec is chosen (see comp above). The default value is 100, meaning full (loss-less) quality.

Drawing nodes alone or in conjunction with elements


Normally EUROPLEXUS draws an object composed of elements, and the nodes belonging to such elements are drawn as a consequence of elements visualization.


A user may sometimes want to visualize a set of nodes independently from the elements to which they belong, or in addition to the elements to which they belong (by highlighting the chosen nodes in some manner so that they stand out). Below are summarized some techniques to obtain such effects.

  1. Drawing nodes only.
    Assume that we have an object mynodes composed only of nodes. This may come from a mesh generator such as Cast3m, it can be the result of an NGRO nodes group definition, or be simply a list of node indexes. To visualize just these nodes, the command is:
        TRAC NOOB OBJN LECT mynodes TERM REND
    
    Note that the view will be set up automatically to fit only the drawn nodes. This technique can be used either in interactive or in batch mode.
  2. Drawing nodes in addition to elements in interactive mode.
    A possible approach is the following: first draw the whole mesh (or a sub-mesh of elements containing all the nodes that should be visualized):
        TRAC REND
    
    Then unselect all elements by right-clicking on Objects → Hide All.
    Finally, select the group of nodes mynodes by right-clicking on Objects → Select Groups. Note that the mynodes group has 0 elements and N>0 nodes. In this way, only the selected nodes will remain visible (no elements).
    The appearance of the nodes can be set by right-clicking on the Geometry → Points menu.
    Note that with this technique the view will be set up automatically to fit the initially drawn mesh, and not only the drawn nodes. Sometimes this may be inappropriate.
  3. Drawing nodes in addition to elements in batch mode.
    A possible approach is the following:
        PLAY
        CAME ... ! set up the chosen camera, e.g. encompassing
                 ! only the chosen nodes
        SCEN OBJE USLM LECT tous TERM    ! unselect all elements
                  SELP LECT mynodes TERM ! select the wanted nodes
             GEOM NAVI FREE
                  POIN SPHE 2 ! for example ...
             COLO PAPE
        SLER CAM1 1 NFRA 1
        TRAC REND ! to show on screen. use OFFS to draw offscreen
        ENDPLAY
    
    In this way, only the selected nodes will be visible (no elements).
    Note that with this technique the view is set up by the user via the CAME directive. This gives complete freedom, but is more laborious.

11.5  AVI file generation from a sequence of bitmaps (MAVI)

O.40


Object


To generate an animated AVI file starting from a sequence of still frames (bitmaps). At the moment, the only type of bitmap images that are recognized by the MAVI command are BMP images.


Note that this functionality is based upon the Microsoft Video for Windows library and therefore it is currently available only on MS-Windows based platforms. If the following commands are issued on a different platform, they are simply ignored by EUROPLEXUS.


Syntax:

   MAVI <DUMP> <FROM 'base'> <UZIP> <RZIP> <TO 'to'>
        <FIRS firs> <LAST last> <STEP step> <pars> REND
DUMP

Dump out verbose information about the bitmaps that are being read in during the AVI file generation (only for debugging).
’base’

Base name of the sequence of bitmap images, in quotes. If omitted, the base name of the test case is used. For example, by specifying FROM ’toto’ the program looks for files of the form toto_0001.bmp, toto_0002.bmp etc. in the current directory, if uncompressed bipmats (as by default) are used. If compressed bitmaps are used (see the next keyword UZIP), then the expected file names are toto_0001.bmp.gz, toto_0002.bm.gz etc. in the current directory.
UZIP

Unzip (decompress) the bitmap files before using them to produce the AVI file. The bitmap files have either been compressed by hand, or they have been produced by the TRAC OFFS ZIP ... directive as explained above. By default, uncompressed bitmaps are expected.
RZIP

Re-zip (re-compress) the bitmap files after using them to produce the AVI file. This saves a lot of disk space. By default, the bitmap files are left uncompressed after use.
’to’

Base name of the AVI file to be produced, in quotes. If omitted, the base name of the test case is used. For example, by specifying TO ’tata’ the program generates AVI file(s) of the form tata_01.avi, tata_02.avi etc. in the current directory.
FIRS

Index of the first bitmap file (frame) to be used for the animation. By default, the first found file in alphabetical order is used.
LAST

Index of the last bitmap file (frame) to be used for the animation. By default, the last found file in alphabetical order is used, so the total number of frames in the animation is in this case determined automatically by the program.
STEP

Increment in the index of the bitmap file (frame) to be used for the animation. By default, all files are used, in alphabetical order.
REND

This keyword terminates the MAVI sequence and triggers its execution. If omitted, no animation file is produced!

In the above MAVI directive, the sequence <pars> represents the following syntax (similar to the one already described above for the direct AVI file creation):

        <FPS fps> <COMP comp> <KFRE kfre> <CQUA cqua>
fps

Number of frames per second for the visualization of the AVI file. If omitted, the default value of 5 frames per second is used.
comp

Compression type of the produced AVI file. The value -1 indicates that the Microsoft Video 1 codec has to be used. This codec is somewhat obsolete for realistic films, but perfectly adequate for the type of technical graphics produced by EUROPLEXUS, and has the advantage of being present on virtually any MS-Windows based computer. The value 1 produces a popup dialog box that allows the user to interactively choose (and somewhat configure) the desired codec from the list of those available on his platform. Obviously, this is adequate only for interactive execution of EUROPLEXUS (while the previous value -1 is the normal choice for unattended AVI file creation, i.e. batch execution). If omitted, the default value of 0 (no compression) is used. Note, however, that without compression the produced AVI file size grows very rapidly since it is simply the sum of the size of its (uncompressed) frames. An advantage of this choice is that the AVI file may be compressed a posteriori by means of an external utility (e.g. Virtualdub).
kfre

Key frame frequency. This parameter is only used when the Microsoft Video 1 codec is chosen (see comp above). The default value is 0, meaning that every frame is a key frame. This somewhat increases the file size but it simplifies navigation through it during playback.
cqua

Compression quality in %. This parameter is only used when the Microsoft Video 1 codec is chosen (see comp above). The default value is 100, meaning full (loss-less) quality.

11.6  GOTRAC: a simple looping mechanism

O.50


Object


To perform a GO in order to advance the solution to the next desired time step or time value, directly followed by a TRAC operation to display the results. This sequence may be automatically repeated a given number of times, if so desired.


Syntax:

 "GOTR" <"LOOP" n> <trac_options> trac_terminator
n

An integer used to specify the number of times the GOTRAC sequence has to be repeated. By default, the sequence is executed just once.
trac_options

Any valid sequence of sub-commands of the TRAC command, see above.
trac_terminator

A valid terminator of the TRAC command, which actually produces the drawing or visualization. The possible values are NORM for vector-graphics based (on-screen or on file) drawing or REND for OpenGL-based rendering. See the above description of the TRAC command for further details.

11.7  CAMERA parameters and options

O.60


Object


To define a camera for OpenGL rendering. Repeat this command any number of times to define as many cameras as needed (with different identifiers icam, see below). The orientation of the camera in space may be defined in two alternative ways: either via a quaternion, or via a triplet of versors defining a right-handed reference frame.


Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, this directive is simply (and entirely) ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.


Syntax:

 CAME icam < EYE ex ey ez >
           < $ Q qr qx qy qz                               $
             $ VIEW vz vy vz RIGH rx ry rz UP ux uy uz     $ >
           < FOV fovy >
icam

An integer used to identify the camera later on. It must be a positive number and it is mandatory (no default value is provided). Typically, use 1, 2, 3, etc. Best efficiency is obtained by starting the definition of cameras with the highest index. By repeating the definition of an existing camera (same index), the old one is replaced by the new one and is no longer available.
EYE

Position of the camera in space, i.e. position of the observer’s eye. If omitted, the program assumes the position (0,0,1).
Q

Quaternion defining the orientation of the camera in space. Here qr is the real part while qx, qy, qz are the components of the imaginary part. Its norm must be unitary, so that the quaternion represents a rigid-body rotation in space, with respect to a default orientation. This default orientation is assumed such that the x-axis points to the right of the picture, the y-axis points upwards and the negative z-axis points “inside”. The default value of this parameter is the identity quaternion (1,0,0,0).
VIEW RIGH UP

Triplet of unit versors that may be used, in alternative to the quaternion form described above, to define the orientation in space of the camera. The VIEW vector points from the camera position (EYE) to the observed object. The RIGHT vector defines the right-hand orientation (horizontally in the picture) and the UP vector defines the upright direction (vertically in the picture). These vectors must be unitary in length and be mutually orthogonal so as to define a left-handed reference frame. The vector product of RIGH times VIEW must equal UP (and cyclic permutations thereof). The default values are: (0,0,-1) for VIEW, (1,0,0) for RIGH and (0,1,0) for UP.
FOV

Angle representing the field of view of the camera, in degrees. Smaller angles produce a zoom-in effect while larger ones produce a zoom-out effect. The default value is 60 degrees.

11.8  SLERP parameters and options

O.70


Object


To define a slerp (spherical linear interpolation) of camera positions for OpenGL rendering.


Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, this directive is simply (and entirely) ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.


Syntax:

 SLER  CAM1 ic1 <CAM2 ic2> <NFRA nfra>
       <INTE /PROG/> <CENT cx cy cz>
CAM1

Identifier of the first (initial) camera for the slerp. This camera must of course have been previously defined by the CAME directive. This value is mandatory, and thus no default value is provided.
CAM2

Identifier of the second (final) camera for the slerp. This camera must of course have been previously defined by the CAME directive. This value may be omitted, and in that case 0 is assumed. This means that the scene is still: the first camera defined above is used for the whole sequence.
NFRA

Number of frames of the slerp sequence. If omitted, 1 is assumed: the scene consists of a single frame, produced by CAM1. If greater than 1, then there are two cases: if CAM2 is not defined, then all frames are produced with the first camera (CAM1), i.e. the sequence is still. If CAM2 is defined, then the camera is interpolated between CAM1 and CAM2. Note, however, that in the case of linear interpolation (missing INTE, see below) the first interpolated value is not CAM1 but the first non-zero value going from CAM1 to CAM2. The last interpolated camera, however, coincides with CAM2. This convention allows to chain successive sequences one after the other without obtaining double (repeated) frames at the intermediate camera values.
INTE

Interpolation values for the calculation of parameters for the intermediate frames. If omitted, linear equidistant values are used. Linear interpolation is applied to the camera FOV while slerp interpolation is used for the camera orientation (Q or VIEW, RIGH, UP). The camera EYE is interpolated as described below (see CENT).
CENT

Centre of rotation for the interpolation of the camera eye positions. If omitted, or if its position coincides with the eye position for the first camera (CAM1), the eye position is interpolated linearly between the initial and final (if relevant) specified positions. Thus, the observer moves along a straight line (while at the same time possibly rotating around the eye). When present and different from the eye position for the first camera (CAM1), it represents the centre of a circle along which the camera eye moves. The circle passes through the initial and final camera eye positions. Therefore, the given point must be equidistant from these two points (but of course not aligned between them, so that the three points define a unique plane).

11.9  SCENE options

O.80


Object


To define a set of parameters (globally indicated above as <spars>) for the definition of the characteristics of the current scene, to be used during OpenGL rendering.


These parameters parallel as closely as possible the menu items that are available for interactive OpenGL visualization. For more details on the parameters and options, see the reference manual of the interactive OpenGL renderer.


Once defined by a SCEN directive, a set of scene parameters (the current scene) remains active for any following TRAC directive(s), until a new set of parameters is defined by a new SCEN directive.


If no SCEN directive is given, some reasonable default values are assumed.


In order to restore the default scene values during a calculation after a scene has been defined, use an empty SCEN directive, i.e. SCEN followed by no other sub-keywords or parameters.


Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, this directive is simply (and entirely) ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.


Syntax:

 SCEN
    <OBJE ( <SELM /LECT/> <USLM /LECT/>
            <SELG /LECT/> <USLG /LECT/>
            <SELP /LECT/> <USLP /LECT/> )
            <SELV | FLSR ; FLSW ; HANG ; BHAN | >
          <DHAS $ OUTL ; CGLA ; BGLA ; GGLA ; GLAS ; FADE ffac $> >
    <GEOM <NAVI FREE>
          <NPTO npto>
          <PROJ ORTH>
          <REFE <FRAM> <BBOX> <CENT> >
          <FACE <HFRO> <SBAC> <SINT> <HBIS> <SHOW /LECT/> >
          <LINE <HEOU> <SSHA> <SFRE> <SPER> <SISO> <ANTI> <SBOU> <SIOU> >
          <POIN $ DOT dsiz ; SPHE ssiz ; SPHP <FACT fact> $>
          <SHRI sh <GROU> <NOUT> <ISOL> <HFAC> <PINS> >
          <PINB <PARE> <CDES> <CPOI> <NORM> <JOIN> <NASN> <PASN> <DASN> >
          <GPIN <DOMA> <SPHE> <CONE> <PRIS> <HEXA>
                <PENE> <PDOT> <CPOI> <NORM> <JOIN> <PASN> >
          <INIT $ ASIS ; CGLA ; WIRE ; OUTL $ >
          <DEBR $ TRAJ ; TRCO $ >
          <FLSR <DOMA> <SPHE> <CONE> <PRIS> <HEXA> <NORM> <COUP> <BLOQ> >
          <FLSW <DOMA> <SPHE> <CONE> <PRIS> <HEXA> <NORM> <COUP> <BLOQ> >
          <LNKS <SHOW <$ ALL ; (link_type)>>
                <HIDE <$ ALL ; (link_type)>>
                <$ LENG fac ; SFAC sfac $>
                <JOIN> >
    <VECT $ SCAV ; COLO ; SCCO $
          <vec_field> <SUPP /LECT/>
          <SCAL $ A6 ; A14 ; USER /PROG/ $>
          <$ LENG fac ; SFAC sfac $>
          <COSC $ COLS ; GRAY ; ICOL ; IGRA $ >
          <SIVE>                                >
    <ISO  $ LINE ; FILL ; FILI ; FELE ; SMOO ; SMLI ; SMEL ; SURF ; SULI $
          <SHIN> <FADE ffac>
          <iso_field> <SUPP /LECT/>  <GAUS igaus | GAUZ igauz>
          <SCAL $ A1 ; A6 ; A14 ; USER /PROG/ $>
          <COSC $ COLS ; GRAY ; ICOL ; IGRA $ >      >
    <TEXT <NODE> <ELEM> <OBJE> <$VSCA ; NVSC$> <$ISCA ; NISC$>
          <HINF> <CAME> <DEBU> <PCON> >
    <COLO ( SELE $ RED  ; GREE ; BLUE ; CYAN ; MAGE ;
                   YELL ; BLAC ; WHIT ; GR05 ; GR10 ;
                   GR15 ; GR20 ; GR25 ; GR30 ; GR35 ;
                   GR40 ; GR45 ; GR50 ; GR55 ; GR60 ;
                   GR65 ; GR70 ; GR75 ; GR80 ; GR85 ;
                   GR90 ; GR95                        $
            APPL $ BGRN ; CENT ; BBOX ; IFAC ; ELOU ;
                   SHAR ; FRED ; PERP ; VECT ; ISOE ;
                   ISOL ; POIN ; NNUM ; ENUM ; ONAM ;
                   TEXT ; INWI ; INOU ; TRAJ ; ISOD $ )
          <$ PAPE ; SCRN $> >
    <LIMA <ON>
          <LIGX ligx> <LIGY ligy> <LIGZ ligz>
          <LAMB $ LOW ; MEDI ; HIGH >
          <LDIF $ LOW ; MEDI ; HIGH >
          <LSPE $ LOW ; MEDI ; HIGH >
          <LSHI $ LOW ; MEDI ; HIGH >
          <LMAM $ LOW ; MEDI ; HIGH >
          ( SELE $ BRAS ; BRON ; PBRO ; CHRO ; COPP ;
                   PCOP ; GOLD ; GOL2 ; PGOL ; PEWT ;
                   SILV ; PSIL ; EMER ; JADE ; OBSI ;
                   PEAR ; RUBY ; TURQ ; BLAP ; CYAP ;
                   GREP ; REDP ; WHIP ; YELP ; BLAR ;
                   BLR2 ; CYAR ; GRER ; REDR ; WHIR ;
                   YELR $
            APPL $ MESH ; SELO ; /LECT/ $ ) >
    <POVR <GLOB <GAMM gamm> <MTRC mtrc> >
          <DEFA <FINI <AMBI ambi> <DIFF diff> > >
          <LIGH ( <light_definition> ) >
          <TXTR ( $ SELE 'texture_identifier' ; DEFI <texture_definition> $
                    APPL $ MESH ; SELO ; /LECT/ $ ) > >

11.9.1  Objects Menu Parameters

OBJE

Introduces the parameters relative to the Objects menu.
SELM

Choice of the elements (objects of mesh type) to be visualized.
USLM

Choice of the elements (objects of mesh type) to be hidden.
SELG

Choice of the groups (of elements) to be visualized.
USLG

Choice of the groups (of elements) to be hidden.
SELP

Choice of the points (objects of points type) to be visualized.
USLP

Choice of the points (objects of points type) to be hidden.
SELV

Select some “variable” objects, i.e. objects (of elements or of points type) whose composition varies in time rather than being topologically constant. At the moment, only the keywords FLSR, FLSW, HANG and BHAN are available. This directive is useful only in the generation of graphics in ‘batch’ mode. In fact, when using the graphics interactively one may access the same objects from the SELG or SELP menus. For example, the fluid nodes currently subjected to FLSR coupling conditions are available interactively in a special node group named “_FLSR”.
FLSR

Select for visualization the fluid nodes currently subjected to FLSR coupling conditions. These nodes are drawn according to the selected drawing mode for points (see GEOM POIN directive).
FLSW

Select for visualization the fluid elements currently subjected to FLSW coupling conditions.
HANG

Select for visualization the currently hanging nodes in adaptivity. These nodes are drawn according to the selected drawing mode for points (see GEOM POIN directive).
BHAN

Select for visualization the currently boundary-hanging nodes in adaptivity. These nodes are drawn according to the selected drawing mode for points (see GEOM POIN directive).
DHAS

Allows to choose the way to draw the hidden (non-visualized) portions of the mash. If omitted, they are ‘drawn’ as hidden (i.e., not drawn at all).
OUTL

Draw hideen mesh portions as element outlines (wireframe representation).
CGLA

Draw hideen mesh portions as colored glass.
BGLA

Draw hideen mesh portions as blue glass.
GGLA

Draw hidden mesh portions as green glass.
GLAS

Draw hidden mesh portions as colored glass (variation of CGLA that produces better results in some circumstances).
FADE

Draw hidden mesh portions as fading out objects.
ffac

Fading out factor (between 1.0 i.e. fully visible and 0.0 i.e. fully hidden).

11.9.2  Geometry Menu Parameters

GEOM

Introduces the parameters relative to the Geometry menu.
NAVI

Introduces the parameters relative to the Navigation sub-menu.
FREE

Choose the free camera navigation mode. By default, the rotating camera navigation mode is used.
NPTO

Introduces the parameters relative to the Near Plane Tolerance sub-menu.
npto

Near plane tolerance. By default, a value of 1.E-4 is used. During navigation inside bodies, it may be useful to increase this value (e.g. to 1.E-2).
PROJ

Introduces the parameters relative to the Projection sub-menu.
ORTH

Choose the orthogonal projection. By default, the perspective projection is used.
REFE

Introduces the parameters relative to the References sub-menu.
FRAM

Show the global reference frame.
BBOX

Show the bounding box.
CENT

Show the centre.
FACE

Introduces the parameters relative to the Faces sub-menu.
HFRO

Hide the front faces.
SBAC

Show the back faces.
SINT

Show the internal faces.
HBIS

Hide the back iso surfaces.
SHOW /LECT/

Force visualization of front and back faces belonging to the elements specified in the following /LECT/. This may be useful e. g. in a calculation with both a fluid (volumetric mesh) and a structure when the user wants to display both the structure and some iso-surfaces in the fluid. When ISO SURF or ISO SULI is selected, the code automatically disables the view of front faces (as a global setting), therefore the structure would not be drawn. By specifying SHOW LECT stru TERM the structural faces (both front and back faces) are forced to be drawn, thus obtaining the desired effect.
LINE

Introduces the parameters relative to the Lines sub-menu.
HEOU

Hide element outlines.
SSHA

Show sharp corners.
SFRE

Show free edges.
SPER

Show perpendicular contours.
SISO

Show iso surface outlines.
ANTI

Antialias lines.
SBOU

Show backface outlines (even when backfaces are not shown).
SIOU

Show internal face outlines (even when internal faces are not shown). This is a way to show the internal part of the mesh in wireframe representation.
POIN

Introduces the parameters relative to the Points sub-menu.
DOT

Render points as dots of size psiz. By default, points are rendered as dots of size 2.
SPHE

Render points as spheres of size ssiz.
SPHP

Render points as spheres of “physical” size (it must be possible to determine this size from some physical parameter associated with the point, e.g. the radius of a material particle).
FACT

Optional factor by which the physical radius of each sphere is multiplied for visualization purposes. By default it is 1.0.
SHRI

Introduces the parameters relative to the Shrinkage sub-menu.
sh

Shrink by a factor sh. This parameter is mandatory and must immediately follow the SHRI keyword.
GROU

Shrinkage will occur by element groups (which must have been defined), rather than element-by-element. If a group-related centerpoint has been specified in the GROU directive (see page C.61), then it is used for the shrinkage operation, otherwise shrinkage occurs around the average (unweighted) of the center points of the elements contained in the group. If a group-related shrink factor has been specified (see page C.61), it overriodes the scene’s generic sh factor. Finally, if a group-related shift has been specified (see page C.61), it is applied as well during rendering.
NOUT

Do not shrink outlines (they are shrunken by default if some shrinkage is activated).
ISOL

Shrink isolines.
HFAC

Shrink hidden faces.
PINS

Shrink pinballs and gpinballs.
PINB

Introduces the parameters relative to the Pinballs sub-menu.
PARE

Show parent pinballs.
CDES

Show contacting descendents.
CPOI

Show contact points.
NORM

Show contact normals.
JOIN

Show contact joints.
NASN

Show nodal ASNs (assembled surface normals).
PASN

Show pinball ASNs (assembled surface normals) for the parent pinballs.
DASN

Show pinball ASNs (assembled surface normals) for the contacting descendent pinballs.
GPIN

Introduces the parameters relative to the Gpinballs sub-menu.
DOMA

Render all the GPIN domains types (i.e. spheres, cones, prisms and tetrahedra).
SPHE

Render the spherical GPIN domains.
CONE

Render the conical GPIN domains.
PRIS

Render the prisms GPIN domains.
HEXA

Render the hexahedra GPIN domains.
PENE

Show the penetrations. By convention, and for representation clarity, each penetration is represented by two (equal and mutually opposite) arrows. The length of each arrow is equal to the amount of penetration in the geometric scale of the drawing. The arrows are located externally to the segment 12 that joins the two contacting points and in contact with each extremity of the segment. If the penetration is positive (real), then the arrows point towards each other and have their heads on the extremities of the segment. If the penetration is negative (fictitiuos), then the arrows point away from each other and have their tails on the extremities of the contact segment.
PDOT

Show the penetration rates. We use the same type of representation (by two mutually opposite arrows) as for the penetrations (see above). Each arrow representing the penetration rate has the same length as the penetration. In fact, it is not possible to take it equal (or proportional) to the penetration rate, since the range of the rate is arbitrary, unlike that of the penetration. The two arrows are pointing towards each other if the penetration rate is positive, otherwise they are pointing away from each other. Be aware that only the direction, and not the amplitude, of the arrows makes sense in this case!
CPOI

Show contact points. The “first” contact point (of each pcontact) is drawn in red, the “second” is drawn in green.
NORM

Show contact normals.
JOIN

Show contact joints.
PASN

Show gpinball ASNs (assembled surface normals) for the gpinballs.
INIT

Render the initial geometry of the model besides the current one.
ASIS

Render the initial geometry in the same way as the current one.
CGLA

Render the initial geometry as colored glass.
WIRE

Render the initial geometry as wireframe.
OUTL

Render the initial geometry as outline.
DEBR

Render the flying debris besides the current geometry.
TRAJ

Render the flying debris trajectories.
TRCO

Render the flying debris trajectories in shades of color. The color is related to the local debris velocity.
FLSR

Introduce rendering of quantities related to FLSR domains besides the current geometry.
DOMA

Render all the FLSR domains themselves (i.e. spheres, cones, prisms and tetrahedra).
SPHE

Render the spherical FLSR domains.
CONE

Render the conical FLSR domains.
PRIS

Render the prisms FLSR domains.
HEXA

Render the hexahedra FLSR domains.
NORM

Render the FLSR domain normal(s). First normals are rendered in blue, second normals (if any) in green and third normals (if any) in red.
COUP

Render the FLSR couplings.
BLOQ

Render the FLSR blocked MC fluxes.
FLSW

Introduce rendering of quantities related to FLSW domains besides the current geometry.
DOMA

Render all the FLSW domains themselves (i.e. spheres, cones, prisms and tetrahedra).
SPHE

Render the spherical FLSW domains.
CONE

Render the conical FLSW domains.
PRIS

Render the prisms FLSW domains.
HEXA

Render the hexahedra FLSW domains.
NORM

Render the FLSW domain normal(s). First normals are rendered in blue, second normals (if any) in green and third normals (if any) in red.
COUP

Render the FLSW couplings.
BLOQ

Render the FLSW blocked MC fluxes.
LNKS

Render the links. All links are rendered by default, i.e. if no further keywords such as SHOW or HIDE are specified after the LNKS keyword.
SHOW

Set all links as hidden and then introduce selection of which links have to be shown.
ALL

All links are shown (this is the default).
link_type

Specify one or more link types. Only the links of the selected type(s) will be shown. The list of available link types is given below (see also module M_LIAISORGA).
HIDE

Set all links as shown and then introduce selection of which links have to be hidden.
ALL

All links are hidden.
link_type

Specify one or more link types. The links of the selected type(s) will be hidden. The list of available link types is given below (see also module M_LIAISORGA).
LENG

Introduces the parameters relative to the Length sub-menu.
fac

Scaling factor with respect to the default length of links vectors, which is 10% of the geometric model size.
SFAC

May be use in alternative to the LENG directive to set the absolute length or the maximum length of the drawn links vectors. This is useful e.g. in animations when the size of the geometric model may vary considerably during a transient calculation.
sfac

Since links vectors are of uniform length (non-scaled), sfac represents the length of the drawn vectors.
JOIN

Show link joints (lines connecting all the nodes linked by a link).

Link types

The available link types are:

RELA,COQM,FS  ,BLOQ,NAVI,SOLI,BIFU,IMPA,
CONT,ACCE,VITE,DEPL,DRIT,FLST,FSA ,FSTG,
COLL,FLSR,GLIS,IMPA,FSR ,TUYM,TUYA,SH3D,
MENS,PINB,MAP2,MAP3,MAP4,MAP5,MAP6,MAP7,
FESE,SH3D,MOY4,MOY5,FLSW,PELM,GPIN,EDEF,
SPEF,TBLO,TMEN,FLSS,FLSX,MEC1,MEC2,MEC3,
MEC4,MEC5,RIC ,RIIL,RIIS,ADHE,HANG

11.9.3  Vectors Menu Parameters

VECT

Introduces the parameters relative to the Vectors menu.
SCAV

Show scaled vectors.
COLO

Show colored vectors.
SCCO

Show scaled colored vectors.
SUPP

Define, by means of the following /LECT/, the list of the nodes that form the geometric support of the vector field. By default, the support is the entire mesh.
<vec_field>

Choose the vector field to be represented (see below).
SCAL

Introduces the parameters relative to the Scale sub-menu.
A6

Use an automatic scale with 6 values. By default, an automatic scale with 14 values is used.
A14

Use an automatic scale with 14 values. This is the default.
USER

Use the fixed, user-specified scale given by /PROG/.
LENG

Introduces the parameters relative to the Length sub-menu.
fac

Scaling factor with respect to the default vector length, which is 10% of the geometric model size.
SFAC

May be use in alternative to the LENG directive to set the absolute length or the maximum length of the drawn vectors. This is useful e.g. in animations when the size of the geometric model may vary considerably during a transient calculation.
sfac

The meaning of this value depends upon the chosen vector type representation. For scaled vectors (colored or not) sfac is the scale factor by which the physical vector norm is multiplied to obtain the length of the drawn vector. Thus, the length of a drawn vector may be associated with a physical value of the represented quantity, independently from the geometric model size and its variations, and on the chosen scale. For colored vectors of uniform length (non-scaled) sfac represents the length of the drawn vectors.
COSC

Introduces the color scheme to be used for the visualization of vectors.
COLS

Use colors (this is the default).
GRAY

Use a scale of grays.
ICOL

Use colors but invert the colors set (blue indicates the maximum value insted of minimum value).
IGRA

Use a scale of grays but invert the colors set (dark gray indicates the maximum value insted of minimum value).
SIVE

Show internal vectors in 3D models. By default, vectors are only traced on the visible faces, i.e. typically just on the envelope of 3D models.

11.9.4  Choice of a vector field


Object


To select the vector field to be represented by the VECT directive described above.


Syntax:

 VECT . . .  <FIEL $ VITE ; VITG ; ACCE ; DEPL ; FINT ; FEXT ; FLIA ;
                     MASS ; VCVI ; FDEC $> . . .
VITE

Material or particle velocity (first idim components). This is the vector field represented by default, if the FIEL directive is omitted.
VITG

Mesh velocity in an ALE calculation (first idim components).
ACCE

Material or particle acceleration (first idim components).
DEPL

Displacement (first idim components).
FINT

Internal force (first idim components).
FEXT

Total external force (first idim components).
FLIA

External force due to liaisons (coupled links) (first idim components).
MASS

Nodal mass (first idim components).
VCVI

Material or particle velocity (first idim components) in Finite Volumes Cell Centred model. Note that these vectors are not represented at the nodes but at the “elements” (i.e., Finite Volumes) centroids.
FDEC

External force due to decoupled links (first idim components).

11.9.5  Iso Menu Parameters

ISO

Introduces the parameters relative to the Iso menu.
LINE

Show iso lines.
FILL

Show iso fill.
FILI

Show iso fill lines.
FELE

Show iso fill elements.
SMOO

Show iso smooth.
SMLI

Show iso smooth lines.
SMEL

Show iso smooth elements.
SURF

Show iso surfaces.
SULI

Show iso surfaces lines.
SHIN

Render iso surfaces as shiny surfaces. By default, iso surfaces are rendered as dull surfaces.
FADE

Draw iso surfaces as fading out objects (this is only applicable to SURF or SULI. Useful to see “through” the iso surfaces, e.g. in case of pressure waves in a blast.
ffac

Fading out factor (between 1.0 i.e. fully visible and 0.0 i.e. fully hidden).
SUPP

Define, by means of the following /LECT/, the list of the elements that form the geometric support of the iso field. By default, the support is the entire mesh.
GAUS

Allows to choose a specific Gauss point index (only for the quantities CONT, EPST and ECRO).
igaus

Number of the Gauss point chosen. The special value 0 means that the average over all Gauss points in the element is taken. This is the default, i.e. if neither GAUS nor GAUZ is specified. Note that this default is different from the default in curve plotting (Page ED.80) where 1 is assumed, i.e. the first Gauss Point is plotted.
GAUZ

Allows to choose a specific “lamina” of the (shell) element. The value is the index of the lamina through the thickness (only for the quantities CONT, EPST and ECRO). In this case, the code takes the average value of all Gauss Points belonging to the specified lamina.
igauz

Number of Gauss point through the thickness (i.e. index of the chosen lamina).
<iso_field>

Choose the iso field to be represented (see below).
SCAL

Introduces the parameters relative to the Scale sub-menu.
A1

Use an automatic scale with just one value. This value is the average of the data extremes. By default, an automatic scale with 6 values is used.
A6

Use an automatic scale with 6 values. This is the default.
A14

Use an automatic scale with 14 values. By default, an automatic scale with 6 values is used.
USER

Use the fixed, user-specified scale given by /PROG/.
COSC

Introduces the color scheme to be used for the visualization of iso values.
COLS

Use colors (this is the default).
GRAY

Use a scale of grays.
ICOL

Use colors but invert the colors set (blue indicates the maximum value insted of minimum value).
IGRA

Use a scale of grays but invert the colors set (dark gray indicates the maximum value insted of minimum value).

11.9.6  Choice of an iso field


Object


To select the iso field to be represented by the ISO directive described above.


Syntax:

 ISO . . .  <FIEL $ CONT icon ; EPST ieps; ECRO iecr ; DTEL ;
                    VITE <icom> ; VITG <icom> ; ACCE <icom> ;
                    DEPL <icom> ; FINT <icom> ; FEXT <icom> ;
                    MASS <icom> ; FLIA <icom> ; FDEC <icom> ;
                    MCPR ; MCRO ; MCTE ; MCCS ; MCMF icom ;
                    MCP1 ; MCP2 ; PFSI ; PFMI ; PFMA ;
                    SIGN isig ; ECRN iecr ;
                    ADFT ;
                    FAIL ;
                    RISK irsk ;
                    LFEL ; LFEV ;
                    LFNO ; LFNV ; ILNO ; DTNO ;
                    VCVI <icom> ;
                    CERR ; MAXC ; ERRI ; CLEN ; ILEN            $> . . .
CONT icon

The icon-th component of the stress tensor.
EPST ieps

The ieps-th component of the cumulated strain.
ECRO iecr

The iecr-th component of the hardening parameters.
DTEL

Stability time step Δ tstab associated with the element. The stability step is the critical step Δ tcrit estimated by the code (roughly the element length L divided by the speed of sound c in the element material) multiplied by the safety coefficient φ (CSTA, by default 0.8): Δ tstab=φΔ tcrit≈φL/c.
VITE <icom>

Material or particle velocity: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components. This is the iso field represented by default, if the FIEL directive is omitted.
VITG <icom>

Mesh velocity in an ALE calculation: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
ACCE <icom>

Material or particle acceleration: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
DEPL <icom>

Displacement: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
FINT <icom>

Internal force: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
FEXT <icom>

External force: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
MASS <icom>

Nodal mass: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
FLIA <icom>

Liaison (coupled links) force: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
FDEC <icom>

Decoupled links force: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
MCPR

Finite volumes pressure (defined at nodes).
MCRO

Finite volumes density (defined at nodes).
MCTE

Finite volumes temperature (defined at nodes).
MCCS

Finite volumes sound speed (defined at nodes).
MCMF icom

Finite volumes mass fraction of the icom-th component. (defined at nodes).
MCP1

Finite volumes minimum pressure during the transient (defined at nodes).
MCP2

Finite volumes maximum pressure during the transient (defined at nodes).
PFSI

Overpressure due to FSI in the nodes of CLxx elements associated with an IMPE VISU material (see Page C.885) and with either COUP or DECO specified. These CLxx elements, used only for results visualization purposes, must be attached to structural elements (typically shells) embedded in a fluid and subjectd to either FLSR or FLSW model of FSI.
PFMI

Minimum FSI overpressure in time at the node (see PFSI above.
PFMA

Maximum FSI overpressure in time at the node (see PFSI above.
SIGN isig

Stress (isig-th component) in spectral elements (defined at nodes).
ECRN iecr

Hardening parameter (iecr-th component) in spectral elements (defined at nodes).
ADFT

Advection-diffusion temperature (defined at nodes).
FAIL

Failure level of the element which has been reached: 0 means virgin element, 1 means completely failed element and an intermediate values indicates a partially failed element.
RISK irsk

Risk due to the effects of an explosion. Risk values go from 0 (no risk) to 1 (full risk). Risk is estimated in the fluid field, and at the moment, it is only computed in JRC’s FLxx elements and the cell centred finite volumes (VFCC). To activate this calculation, it is necessary to specify the RISK keyword in the calculation type (see page A.30). The irsk parameter indicates the “component” (i.e. the type) of risk considered: 1 means eardrum rupture risk, 2 means death risk. Be aware that when reading results from an Alice file (produced by a previous calculation with risk activation), it is mandatory to (re-)specify the whole RISK directive (in particular as concerns the PROB ... and LUNG ... subdirectives, see page A.30), because the risk is computed with the current values of the optional parameters.
LFEL

Logarithm in base 2 of the level factor associated with elements in the spatial time step partitioning algorithm.
LFEV

Logarithm in base 2 of the level factor associated with elements including the neighbours in the spatial time step partitioning algorithm.
LFNO

Logarithm in base 2 of the level factor associated with nodes in the spatial time step partitioning algorithm (defined at nodes).
LFNV

Logarithm in base 2 of the level factor associated with nodes including the neighbours in the spatial time step partitioning algorithm (defined at nodes).
ILNO

Flag indicating whether a node is (1) or is not (0) subjected to a link condition, used in the spatial time step partitioning algorithm (defined at nodes).
DTNO

Stability time step associated with nodes, used in the spatial time step partitioning algorithm (defined at nodes).
VCVI <icom>

Material or particle velocity in Finite Volumes Cell Centred model: icom-th component if specified, else norm of the first idim components.
CERR

Constant used in element error indicator calculation (adaptivity), see the CERR input keyword of the ADAP directive on page B.210.
MAXC

Maximum principal curvature of least-squares fitting function, used for element error indicator calculation (adaptivity).
ERRI

Element error indicator (adaptivity),
CLEN

Current characteristic element length used in error indicator calculations.
ILEN

Optimal (indicated) characteristic element length resulting from error indicator calculations.


The MCPR, MCRO, MCTE, MCVI and MCMF keywords are available only in calculations with finite volumes.


The SIGN and ECRN keywords are available only in calculations with spectral elements.


The ADFT keyword is available only in calculations with advection-diffusion.


The FAIL keyword is available only in calculations with the element erosion algorithm, see Page A.30.


The LFEL, LFEV, LFNO, LFNV, ILNO and DTNO keywords are available only in calculations with spatial time step partitioning (OPTI PART, see Page H.20).


The CERR, MAXC, ERRI, CLEN, ILEN keywords are available only in calculations with “true” adaptivity (see the ADAP directive on page B.210).

11.9.7  Text Menu Parameters

TEXT

Introduces the parameters relative to the Text menu.
NODE

Show node numbers.
ELEM

Show element numbers.
OBJE

Show object names.
VSCA

Show vectors scale. Note that the scale is automatically shown when vectors are visualized.
NVSC

Do not show vectors scale. This can be used to disable the automatic visualization of the vectors scale when vectors are rendered.
ISCA

Show iso scale. Note that the scale is automatically shown when isovalues are visualized.
NISC

Do not show iso scale. This can be used to disable the automatic visualization of the iso scale when isovalues are rendered.
HINF

Hide info.
CAME

Show camera values.
DEBU

Show debug info.
PCON

Show pinball contact indexes (in yellow) and gpinball contact indexes (in magenta).

11.9.8  Colors Menu Parameters

COLO

Introduces the parameters relative to the Colors menu. This menu allows to choose the colors of many graphical elements of the rendered scene, such as the background, the element outlines etc. To apply special colors to the model itself, or to parts of it, see the parameters relative to the Lights/Mats menu below. To apply a color, first it is selected by means of the SELE keyword, then it is applied to the desired graphical element by means of the APPL keyword. This sequence may be repeated as many times as necessary.
SELE

Introduces the selection of a color by means of the Select color sub-menu. The available colors are listed in the following Table. For greys, the number indicates the luminosity, i.e. GR05 is almost black, while GR95 is almost white.
NameColorNameColorNameColor
RED RedGREEGreenBLUEBlue
CYANCyanMAGEMagentaYELLYellow
BLACBlackWHITWhiteGR05Grey 05%
GR10Grey 10%GR15Grey 15%GR20Grey 20%
GR25Grey 25%GR30Grey 30%GR35Grey 35%
GR40Grey 40%GR45Grey 45%GR50Grey 50%
GR55Grey 55%GR60Grey 60%GR65Grey 65%
GR70Grey 70%GR75Grey 75%GR80Grey 80%
GR85Grey 85%GR90Grey 90%GR95Grey 95%
APPL

Introduces the application of the selected color by means of the Apply it to sub-menu. The available items to which a color may be applied are listed in the following Table.
NameItemNameItemNameItem
BGRNBackgroundCENTCentreBBOXBounding box
IFACInternal facesELOUElement outlinesSHARSharp corners
FREDFree edgesPERPPerpendicular contoursVECTVectors
ISOEIso surface edgesISOLIso surface outlinesPOINPoints
NNUMNode numbersENUMElement numbersONAMObject names
TEXTTextINWIInitial wireframeINOUInitial outline
TRAJDebris trajectoriesISODIso default color  
ISOD

Introduces the default color for isovalues. When iso-values are drawn and the user has selected only part of the mesh by the SUPP directive, the non-selected parts of the mesh are drawn in this color. The default value of this color is GR50 (i.e. 50% grey).
PAPE

Select colors suited for paper. This is the default. The scene background is white and the element outlines are black.
SCRN

Select colors suited for screen. The background becomes black and element outlines become white, in contrast with the PAPE (default) option where the background is white and the element outlines are black.

11.9.9  Lights and Materials Menu Parameters

LIMA

Introduces the parameters relative to the Lights/Mats menu. This menu allows to switch the light on, to choose some parameters relative to the lighting model and to apply special materials (colors) to the model, or to parts of it. To apply a material, first it is selected by means of the SELE keyword, then it is applied to the desired object by means of the APPL keyword. This sequence may be repeated as many times as necessary.
ON

Switches the light on. The light must be on to see the special material effects properly.
LIGX

Introduces the x-position of the light ligx. By default, ligx=-1, i.e. the light comes from the left.
LIGY

Introduces the y-position of the light ligy. By default, ligy=1, i.e. the light comes from the top.
LIGZ

Introduces the z-position of the light ligz. By default, ligz=1, i.e. the light comes from the front.
LAMB

Introduces the ambient light, which may be LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH. By default, the ambient light is MEDIUM for dull surfaces, LOW for shiny surfaces. The values for dull or shiny surfaces are somewhat different.
LDIF

Introduces the diffuse light, which may be LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH. By default, the diffuse light is HIGH for dull surfaces, HIGH for shiny surfaces. The values for dull or shiny surfaces are somewhat different.
LSPE

Introduces the specular light, which may be LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH. By default, the specular light is LOW for dull surfaces, HIGH for shiny surfaces. The values for dull or shiny surfaces are somewhat different.
LSHI

Introduces the light shininess, which may be LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH. By default, the light shininess is LOW for dull surfaces. This quantity is unused for shiny surfaces.
LMAM

Introduces the model ambient light, which may be LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH. By default, the model ambient light is MEDIUM for shiny surfaces. This quantity is unused for dull surfaces.
SELE

Introduces the selection of a material by means of the Select material sub-menu. The available materials are listed in the following Table.
NameMaterialNameMaterialNameMaterial
BRASBrassBRONBronzePBROPolished bronze
CHROChromeCOPPCopperPCOPPolished copper
GOLDGoldGOL2Gold 2PGOLPolished gold
PEWTPewterSILVSilverPSILPolished silver
EMEREmeraldJADEJadeOBSIObsidian
PEARPearlRUBYRubyTURQTurquoise
BLAPBlack plasticCYAPCyan plasticGREPGreen plastic
REDPRed plasticWHIPWhite plasticYELPYellow plastic
BLARBlack rubberBLR2Black rubber 2CYARCyan rubber
GRERGreen rubberREDRRed rubberWHIRWhite rubber
YELRYellow rubber    
APPL

Introduces the application of the selected material by means of the Apply it to sub-menu.
MESH

Apply the selected material to the whole mesh.
SELO

Apply the selected material to the currently selected objects.
/LECT/

Apply the selected material to the specified objects.

11.9.10  POV-Ray Menu Parameters


Notice: the present set of commands is experimental and still under development. Some of the described commands might not be implemented yet.

POVR

Introduces the parameters relative to the POV-Ray menu. These contain settings to be passed to the POV-Ray ray-tracing software via the generated .pov scene description file(s), when choosing a POV-Ray type of output.
GLOB

Introduces some global parameters to be set in POV-Ray’s global_settings statement.
GAMM

This is POV-Ray’s assumed_gamma parameter. By default it is set to 2.2, which is the advised value for Intel-based computed (according to Lohmueller).
MTRC

This is POV-Ray’s max_trace_level parameter. By default it is set to 5.
DEFA FINI

Introduces some global POV-Ray parameters to be set in an inital #default finish statement.
AMBI

Ambient component of POV-Ray’s default finish. By default it is set to 0.5.
DIFF

Diffuse component of POV-Ray’s default finish. By default it is set to 0.5.
LIGH

Introduces the definition of light sources (if any) to be used in POV-Ray’s scene. If no specific POV-Ray light sources are declared, then EPX’s light source is tentatively translated to POV-Ray syntax. See Defining POV-Ray lights below for the syntax to define POV-Ray lights (<light_definition>).
TXTR

Introduces the definition of surface textures (if any) to be used in POV-Ray’s scene. If no specific POV-Ray surface textures are declared, then EPX’s (uniform) color for each element is tentatively translated to POV-Ray syntax.
SELE

Select a pre-defined POV-Ray texture by its identifier, i.e. by specifying the texture’s name in quotes. For example: SELE ’White_Marble’, where the identifier White_Marble is defined in POV-Ray’s textures.inc include file. This file is included automatically in the header of the generated .pov files. Note that POV-Ray identifiers are case-sensitive and must be encoded exactly, by respecting the letter case.
DEFI

Define a (new) POV-Ray texture by specifying its components, see <texture_definition> below. Only so-called plain textures may be defined via this input mechanism (not the more complex patterned or layered textures which are also available in POV-Ray). Typical components of a texture are a pigment, a normal and a finish. All components are optional and default values are used if they are not specified. In addition, a modifier such as scale, rotate and translate can be applied to a texture. See Defining POV-Ray textures below for the syntax to define POV-Ray textures (<texture_definition>).
APPL

Introduces the application of the selected or defined texture by means of the Apply it to sub-menu.
MESH

Apply the texture to the whole mesh.
SELO

Apply the texture to the currently selected objects.
/LECT/

Apply the texture to the specified objects.

Defining POV-Ray lights

A POV-Ray light may be defined by the syntax given below.

Defining POV-Ray textures

A (plain) POV-Ray texture may be defined by the syntax given below, by specifying the associated pigment, normal and finish (all of which are optional) and an optional scaling, rotation and translation.


Syntax:

  DEFI < PIGM $ SELE 'pigment_identifier' ;
                COLO $ 'color_identifier' ;
                       <R r> <G g> <B b> <T t> $ $ >
       < NORM ...                                  >
       < FINI ...                                  >
       < SCAL scal >
       < ROTA <RX rx> <RY ry> <RZ rz>              >
       < TRAN <TX tx> <TY Ty> <TZ tz>              >
DEFI

Introduces the definition of a plain POV-Ray texture.
PIGM

Introduces the definition of the texture’s pigment.
SELE ’pigment_identifier’

Select a pre-defined POV-Ray pigment by its identifier, i.e. by specifying the pigment’s name in quotes.
COLO

Introduces the definition of the pigment’s color.
’color_identifier’

Select a pre-defined POV-Ray color by its identifier, i.e. by specifying the color’s name in quotes. The colors defined in POV-Ray’s include file colors.inc are shown below and are listed in the following Table.

[Dull colors] [Shiny colors]
Figure 4: POV-Ray’s default colors with a dull or shiny finish.


ColorRGB
Red1.0000000.0000000.000000
Green0.0000001.0000000.000000
Blue0.0000000.0000001.000000
Yellow1.0000001.0000000.000000
Cyan0.0000001.0000001.000000
Magenta1.0000000.0000001.000000
Clear1.0000001.0000001.000000
White1.0000001.0000001.000000
Black0.0000000.0000000.000000
Table 6: Definition of POV-Ray’s default colors (from colors.inc).

R

Color’s red component in the RGB color system (0≤ R≤ 1). Default is 0.
G

Color’s green component in the RGB color system (0≤ G≤ 1). Default is 0.
B

Color’s blue component in the RGB color system (0≤ B≤ 1). Default is 0.
T

Color’s transparency (0≤ T≤ 1). Default is 0 (fully opaque), 1 means completely transparent (invisible).
NORM

Introduces the definition of the texture’s normal.
FINI

Introduces the definition of the texture’s finish.
SCAL

Introduces the definition of the texture’s scaling. Default scaling is 1.0.
ROTA

Introduces the definition of the texture’s rotation.
RX

Texture’s rotation angle in degrees around the global X-axis. Defaults is 0. Note that POV-Ray’s rotation follow the left-hand rule.
RY

Texture’s rotation angle in degrees around the global Y-axis. Defaults is 0. Note that POV-Ray’s rotation follow the left-hand rule.
RZ

Texture’s rotation angle in degrees around the global Z-axis. Defaults is 0. Note that POV-Ray’s rotation follow the left-hand rule and that the Z-axis points towards the screen interior (left-handed reference) in POV-Ray.
TRAN

Introduces the definition of the texture’s translation.
TX

Texture’s translation along the global X-axis. Defaults is 0.
TY

Texture’s translation along the global Y-axis. Defaults is 0.
TZ

Texture’s translation along the global Z-axis. Defaults is 0. Note that the Z-axis points towards the screen interior (left-handed reference) in POV-Ray.

11.10  TITLES options

O.90


Object


To define a set of parameters (globally indicated above as <tpars>) for the definition of a frame or AVI sequence containing titles, to be used during OpenGL rendering.


Once defined by a TITL directive, the first following TRAC directive will produce a titles frame (or AVI sequence) instead of the normal rendering of geometrical objects.


The color of the background and of the text used for the titles may be set by means of the SCEN directive described above (background color and text color, respectively).


Note that on EUROPLEXUS versions implemented on a non-OpenGL platform, this directive is simply (and entirely) ignored. This enhances portability of benchmark tests on the various platforms.


Syntax:

 TITL
    <TIT1 'text1'>
    <TIT2 'text2'>
    <TIT3 'text3'>
TIT1

Introduces the text of the first title (text1), enclosed in quotes. This text appears centered in the upper part of the frame or sequence.
TIT2

Introduces the text of the second title (text2), enclosed in quotes. This text appears centered in the central part of the frame or sequence, and is therefore the “main” title.
TIT3

Introduces the text of the third title (text3), enclosed in quotes. This text appears centered in the lower part of the frame or sequence.

Comments:


If none of the titles is given, the TITL directive desactivates the production of title frames (i.e. the next TRAC directive will produce regular geometry rendering).


Any omitted title is not represented in the titles frame.


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